In the first method the substance, mixed with quicklime free from chlorine, is heated in a tube closed at one end in a combustion furnace.
Produced by the combustion of 1 lb of coal, 15,000 Xo 06 =900 only are available for tractive purposes.
It is not economical to force the boiler to work at too high a rate, because it has been practically demonstrated that the boiler efficiency decreases after a certain point, as the rate of combustion increases.
A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.
The relation between the heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon and its heat of formation may be readily seen from the following example.
The violence or completeness of combustion was proportional to the amount of phlogiston present.
Combustion meant the liberation of phlogiston..
Stohmann of Leipzig; and the new data and the conclusions to be drawn from them formed the subject of much discussion, Briihl endeavouring to show how they supported Kekule's formula, while Thomsen maintained that they demanded the benzene union to have a different heat of combustion from the acetylene union.
Difficultly volatile liquids may be weighed directly into the boat; volatile liquids are weighed in thin hermetically sealed bulbs, the necks of which are broken just before they are placed in the combustion tube.
Its fires are not volcanic, but result from the combustion of coal some distance underground, giving off much smoke and steam; geologists estimate that the burning has been going on for at least 800 years.
By the combustion of the least sufficient quantity of sulphur, the rest is liquefied.
- The resistance against which a train is moved along a railway is overcome by means of energy obtained from the combustion of fuel, or in some few cases by energy obtained from a waterfall.
- The maximum power which can be developed by a locomotive depends upon the maximum rate of fuel combustion which can be maintained per square foot of grate.
- One pound of coal requires about 20 lb of air for its proper combustion in the fire-box of a locomotive, though this quantity of air diminishes as the rate of combustion increases.
The steel combustion chamber is of about 250 c.c. capacity, and is wholly immersed in the calorimeter.
The accuracy of heats of combustion determined in the closed calorimeter is in favourable cases about one-half per cent.
The thermochemical magnitude which is universally determined for organic compounds is the heat of combustion, usually by means of the calorimetric bomb.
For substances consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, a rule was early devised for the purpose of roughly calculating their heat of combustion (J.
A much better approximation to the heat of combustion of such substances is obtained by deducting the oxygen together with the amount of carbon necessary to form C02, and then ascertaining the amount of heat produced by the residual carbon and hydrogen.
Chladni's experiment of strewing a vibrating bell with flour, investigated the nature of sound and the function of the air in respiration and combustion, and originated the idea of using the pendulum as a measure of gravity.
Was primarily based upon certain experiments on combustion and calcination, and in effect reduced the number of the alchemical principles, while setting up a new one, a principle of combustibility, named phlogiston (from (PXoyun-6s, burnt).
At the hands of Stahl and his school, the phlogistic theory, by exhibiting a fundamental similarity between all processes of combustion and by its remarkable flexibility, came to be a general theory of chemical action.
Mayow had suggested the existence of two components, a spiritus nitroaerus which supported combustion, and a spiritus nitri acidi which extinguished fire; J.
The phlogistic theory, which pervaded the chemical doctrine of this period, gave rise to continued study of the products of calcination and combustion; it thus happened that the knowledge of oxides and oxidation products was considerably developed.
Thorpe's investigation of the products of the slow combustion of phosphorus.
Theoretical speculations were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature of combustion and determined methods for analysing compounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulphur.
It is well known that singly, doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms affect the physical properties of substances, such as the refractive index, specific volume, and the heat of combustion; and by determining these constants for many substances, fairly definite values can be assigned to these groupings.
The heat of combustion, as first determined by Julius Thomsen, agreed rather better with the presence of nine single unions.
Thomsen then investigated heats of combustion of various benzenoid hydrocarbons - benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, &c. - in the crystallized state.
According to Liebig, man's body is a stove, and food the fuel which keeps up the internal combustion in the lungs.
With closed stoves much less heat is wasted, and consequ;ntly less fuel is burned, than with open grates, but they often cause an unpleasant sensation of dryness in the air, and the products of combustion also escape to some extent, rendering this method of heating not only unpleasant but sometimes even dangerous.