Class (I) includes the American colonies, Reunion, French India, Senegal.
Some Turkish colonies are also found in the south-eastern districts.
The literature of the last two centuries consists mainly of translations and religious works written by ecclesiastics, some of whom were natives of the Albanian colonies in Italy.
As provided by the law of 1900 all local charges are borne by the colonies-supplemented at need by grants in aidbut the military expenses are borne by the state.
In the other colonies and protectorates more than half the trade is with foreign countries.
Its trade was mainly directed towards Sicily, where Megarian colonies were established at Hybla (Megara Hyblaea) and Selinus, and towards the Black Sea, in which region the Megarians were probably i As we have seen, it was mentioned in 1726 by Valentyn, and a young example' was in 1830 described and figured by Quoy and Gaimard (Voy.
Their chief colonies in this sea were Astacus and Heraclea in Bithynia, and another Heraclea in the Crimea.
This influence was due not only to his publications, but also to the "school" or classes for the training of clergymen which he conducted for many years at his home and from which went forth scores of preachers to every part of New England and the middle colonies (states).
In the latter half of the century large colonies of Tosks were planted in the Morea by the despots of Mistra, and in Attica and Boeotia by Duke Nerio of Athens.
239,178 The Basques of Basses-PyrnCes go in considerable 442,777 numbers to the Argentine Republic, the inhabitants of 333,621 Basses Alpes to Mexico and the United States, and 429,812 there are important French colonies in Algeria and 315,199 Tunisia.
These prisons received all sentenced to short terms of imprisonment, the long-term convicts going to the bagnes (the great convict prisons at the arsenals of Rochefort, Brest and Toulon), while in 1851 transportation to penal colonies was adopted.
The colonies are divisible into two classes, (I) those possessing considerable powers of local self-government, (2) those in which the local government is autocratic. To this second class may be added the protectorates (and some colonies) where the native form of government is maintained under the supervision of French officials.
In these colonies the system of assimilation was carried to great lengths.
Fully three-fourths of the state contributions is expenditure on military necessities; in addition there are subventions to various colonies and to colonial railways and cables, and the expenditure on the penitentiary establishments; an item not properly chargeable to the colonies.
The colonial budgets totalled in 1907 some 16,760,000, being divisible into six categories: Algeria 4,120,000; Tunisia 3,640,000; Indo-China3 about 5,000,ooo; West Africa 1,600,000; Madagascar 960,000; all other colonies combined 1,440,000.
The value of the trade with British colonies and Great Britain in 1905 was over 7,200,000.
Mairey, La France et s2s colonies au debut du XX~ sIcle, which has numerous biblio.graphies (Paris, 1909); J.
Those cells are accurately marked, the position of which is such that the colonies, to which they give rise, can grow to their full size without coming into contact with other colonies.
This Robert Livingston, founder of the American family, became in 1675 secretary of the important Board of Indian Commissioners; he was a member of the New York Assembly in1711-1715and 1716-1727 and its speaker in 1718-1725, and in 1701 made the proposal that all the English colonies in America should be grouped for administrative purposes "into three distinct governments."
There were certainly no Egyptian colonies in Sardinia; the Egyptian objects and their imitations found in the island were brought there by the Phoenicians (W.
It is thus clear that in the Bronze Age Sardinia was fairly thickly populated over by far the greater part of its extent; this may explain the lack of Greek colonies, except for Olbia, the modern Terranova, and Neapolis on the cians.
Despite the fact that with the exception of the period of the "Great Awakening" (1740-1742), when he preached as an itinerant in several neighbouring colonies, his active labours were confined to his own parish, his influence on the religious thought of his time in America was probably surpassed only by that of his old friend and teacher Jonathan Edwards.
The timid viscacha (Lagostomus trichodactylus), living in colonies, often with the burrowing owl, and digging deep under ground like the American prairie dog, was almost the only quadruped to be seen upon these immense open plains.
The trade of France was divided between foreign countries and her colonies in the following proportions (imports and exports combined).
Deducting vacancies, sick and absent, the effective strength of the active army in 1906 was 540,563; of the gendarmerie and Garde Rpublicaine 24,512; of colonial troops in the colonies 58,568.
Colonial Troops.These form an expeditionary army corps in France to which are attached the actual corps of occupation to the various colonies, part white, part natives.
The realization of the fact that the value to France of her colonies was mainly commercial, led at length to the abandonment of the attempt to impose on a great number of diverse peoples—some possessing (as in Indo-China and parts of West Africa) ancient and highly complex civilizations—French laws, habits of mind, tastes and manners.
The first step taken in this direction was in 1900 when a law was passed which laid down that the colonies were to provide for their own civil expenditure.
In all colonies Europeans preserve the political rights they held in France, and these rights have been extended, in whole or in part, to various classes of natives.
In Guiana and Cochin-China the franchise is restricted to citizens, in which category the natives (in those colonies) are not included.1 The inhabitants of Tahiti though accorded French citizenship have not been allotted a representative in parliament.
The oversight of all the colonies and protectorates save Algeria and Tunisia is confided to a minister of the colonies (law of March 20, 1894)1 whose powers correspond to those exercised in France by the minister of the interior.
(Nearly all the colonies save those 199,055, of whom 106,695 exercised their suffrage.
In the second class of colonies the governor, sometimes assisted by a privy council, on which non-official members find seats, sometimes simply by a council of administration, is responsible only to the minister of the colonies.
In each of the governments general there is a financial controller with extensive powers who corresponds directly with the metropolitan authorities (decree of March 22, 1907)., Details and local differences hi form of government will be found under the headings of the various colonies and protectorates.
The foreign countries trading most largely with the French colonies are, in the order named, British colonies and Great Britain, China and Japan, the United States and Germany.