The Colonial Period.
The colonial representatives enjoy equal rights with those elected for constituencies in France.
The colonial budgets totalled in 1907 some 16,760,000, being divisible into six categories: Algeria 4,120,000; Tunisia 3,640,000; Indo-China3 about 5,000,ooo; West Africa 1,600,000; Madagascar 960,000; all other colonies combined 1,440,000.
In the extent and importance of her colonial dominion France is second only to Great Britain.
The colonial minister is assisted by a number of organizations of which the most important is the superior council of the colonies (created by decree in 1883), an advisory body which inclUdes the senators and deputies elected by the colonies, and delegates elected by the universal suffrage of all citizens in the colonies and protectorates which do not return members to parliament.
In place of a council general, there is a colonial council which fulfils the functions of a council general.
~Colonial Finance.The cost of the extra-European possessions, other than Algeria and Tunisia, to the state is shown in the expenses of the colonial ministry.
There was in addition a considerable inter-colonial traffic between Australia, New Zealand and the Fijis.
New colonial forms have been developed during the partition of Africa amongst European powers, the sphere of influence being especially worthy of notice.
The foundation of cleruchies was an admirable device, which in many ways anticipated the colonial system of the Romans.
Its constitution has spread to Holland, Scotland (Ireland, England), and to the great American (and Colonial) churches.
The colonial army corps, headquarters at Paris, has three divisions, at Paris, Toulon and Brest.
The period between May 1881 and July 1887 occupied, in the region of foreign affairs, by the negotiation, conclusion and renewal of the triple alliance, by the Bulgarian crisis and by the dawn of an Italian colonial policy, was marked at home by urgent political and economic problems, and by the parliamentary phenomena known as trasformismo.
A typical Siphonophore is a stock or cormus consisting of a number of appendages placed in organic connexion with one another by means of a coenosarc. The coenosarc does not differ in structure from that already described in colonial Hydrozoa.
The old (1678) and new (1873) episcopal palaces, the hospital, the university and the barracks (formerly a Franciscan monastery) are noteworthy examples of Spanish colonial architecture.
But he did not fulfil the expectations which had been formed on the strength`' of his colonial reputation; he took no very prominent part in debate, and gave little evidence of his undoubted oratorical gifts.
Gold is found chiefly in placers, and in colonial times the output was large, but the deposits were long ago exhausted and the industry is now comparatively unimportant.
THEOPHILUS EATON (c. 1590-1658), English colonial governor in America, was born at Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, about 1590.
Deducting vacancies, sick and absent, the effective strength of the active army in 1906 was 540,563; of the gendarmerie and Garde Rpublicaine 24,512; of colonial troops in the colonies 58,568.
The French colonial (formerly marine) infantry, recruited by voluntary enlistment, comprises 18 regiments and 5 independent battalions (of which 12 regiments are at home), 74 batteries of field, fortress and mountain artillery (of which 32 are at home), with a few cavalry and engineers, &c., and other services in proportion.
In the last-named year the commerce of Algeria amounted to 24,506,020 and that of Tunisia to 5,969,248, making a grand total for French colonial trade in 1905 of 65,432,746 The figures were made up as follows:
Little, however, has been done to utilize the deposits, the demands of the colonial markets being extremely limited.
In accordance with this general verdict of all the states, the colonial draft bill was submitted to the imperial government for legislation as an imperial act; and six delegates were sent to England to explain the measure and to pilot it through the cabinet and parliament.
Cromwell's colonial policy aimed definitely at the recognition and extension of the British empire.
From 1885-1886 onwards, outlay on public works, military and colonial expenditure, and especially the commercial and financial crises, contributed to produce annual deficits; but owing to drastic reforms introduced in 1894-1895 and to careful management the year 1898-1899 marked a return of surpluses (nearly 1,306,400).
Colonel Arimondi, commander of the colonial forces in the absence of the military governor, General Baratieri, attacked and routed a dervish force 10,000 strong on the 21st of December.
He took part in the revolution of 1868, wrote the "Manifesto of Cadiz," took office as colonial minister, favoured the candidature of the duc de Montpensier, resigned in 1871, returned to his early Conservative principles, and was a member of Alfonso XII.'s first cabinet.
Meditating, it is probable, emigration upon his release, he turned his attention while in prison to colonial subjects, and acutely detected the main causes of the slow progress of the Australian colonies in the enormous size of the landed estates, the reckless manner in which land was given away, the absence of all systematic effort at colonization, and the consequent discouragement of immigration and dearth of labour.
Fully three-fourths of the state contributions is expenditure on military necessities; in addition there are subventions to various colonies and to colonial railways and cables, and the expenditure on the penitentiary establishments; an item not properly chargeable to the colonies.
The authorized colonial loans, omitting Algeria and Tunisia, during the period 1884f 904 amounted to 19,200,000, the sums paid for interest and sinking funds on loans varying from 600,000 to 800,000 a year.
Clifford, Further India (1904); Journal of the Malay Archipelago, Logan (Singapore); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Singapore); Weld, Maxwell, Swettenham and Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute (London); Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (London).
The law was ably and justly administered, and Irish trade was admitted to the same privileges as English, enjoying the same rights in foreign and colonial trade; and no attempt was made to subordinate the interests of the former to the latter, which was the policy adopted both before and after Cromwell's time, while the union of Irish and English interests was further recognized by the Irish representation at Westminster in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 16J9.
The first book edited by a European in Pali was the Mahazamsa, or Great Chronicle of Ceylon, published there in 18 37 by Tumour, then colonial secretary in the island.
He soon, however, became entirely engrossed with colonial affairs, and, having impressed John Stuart Mill, Colonel Torrens and other leading economists with the value of his ideas, became a leading though not a conspicuous manager of the South Australian Company, by which the colony of South Australia was ultimately founded.
From 1787 onwards, colonial bishops and metropolitans were appointed by letters patent which purported to give them jurisdiction for disciplinary purposes.
The conseil prive is a deliberative body under the presidency of the lieutenant-governor, composed of colonial officials together with two native members.
Colonial Troops.These form an expeditionary army corps in France to which are attached the actual corps of occupation to the various colonies, part white, part natives.
The idea of these meetings was first suggested in a letter to the archbishop of Canterbury by Bishop Hopkins of Vermont in 1851, but the immediate impulse came from the colonial Church in Canada.
He is assisted by the conseil colonial numbering sixteen members, six of whom are French citizens elected by the French, six natives elected by the natives, the other four being members of the chamber of commerce of Saigon and the conseil prive.
The conseil colonial, besides its advisory functions, discusses and votes the budget, determines the nature of the taxes, has supreme control over the tariffs, and extensive powers in the administration of colonial domains.
EDWARD GIBBON WAKEFIELD (1796-1862), British colonial statesman, was born in London on the 10th of March 1796, of an originally Quaker family.
The Straits Settlements - Singapore, Malacca and Penang - were ruled from India until 1867, when they were erected into a crown colony under the charge of the Colonial Office.
His previous university reputation and connexions, combined with his colonial experience, stood him in good stead.
Contemporaneously with the vicissitudes of home and foreign policy under the Left there grew up in Italy a marked tendency towards colonial enterprise.
Meanwhile Signor Crispi, who, though averse from colonial adventure, desired to vindicate Italian honor, entered the Depretis cabinet as minister of the interior, and obtained from parliament a new credit of 800,000.
The legislative powers of the parliament have a wide range, many matters being transferred to it from the colonial parliaments.