The Portuguese were even worse offenders, for in 1680 they made a settlement on the north of the river Plate, right opposite to Buenos Aires, named Colonia, which with one or two short intervals, remained.
The triumviri settled some of their veterans here, whence it appears as Colonia Julia Felix Classica Suessa.
It bears the inscription Colonia Vibia Augusta Perusia, so that the town must have become a colony in the reign of the emperor C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus (A.D.
The city continued to flourish under the Romans, who made it a colony, with the name Colonia Victrix Julia Nova Carthago.
The followfng forms of contract are most usual in the several regions: In Piedmont the mezzadria (mttayage), the terzieria, the colonia parziaria, the boarla, the schiavenza and the affitto, or lease, are most usual.
In the colonia parziaria the peasant executes all the agricultural work, in return for which he is housed rent-free, and receives onesixth of the corn, one-third of the maize and has a small money wage.
Thus the Allobroges now disappear and the colonia of Vienna takes their place: the Volcae vanish and we find Nemausus (Nimes).
Later one or two municipalities were founded - Colonia Agrippinensis at Cologne (A.D.
51), Colonia Augusta Treverorum at Trier (date uncertain), Colonia Ulpia Traiana outside Vetera - and about 80-90 A.D.
It was gradually consummated by the military and commercial settlements of the Portuguese, and subsequently by the Spaniards, who established themselves formally in Montevideo under Governor Zavala of Buenos Aires in 1726, and demolished the rival Portuguese settlement in Colonia in 1777.
Kolomea is a very old town and is mentioned already in 1240, but the assertion that it was a Roman settlement under the name of Colonia is not proved.
Either as a colonia or a municipium, Ravenna remained for more than two centuries an inconsiderable city of Gallia Cisalpina, chiefly noticeable as the place in which Caesar during his ten years' command in Gaul frequently resorted in order to confer with his friends from Rome, and from which he started for his advance into Italy.
16-5 9), daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina the elder, sister of Caligula and mother of Nero, was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (mod.
Thirty-three bishops are included in the most authentic list of signatures, among them three from Britain, - York, London and "Colonia Londinensium" (probably a corruption of Lindensium, or Lincoln, rather than of Legionensium or Caerleon-on-Usk).
Through these two men a military revolution was speedily accomplished, and early in 69 Vitellius was proclaimed emperor at Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), or, more accurately, emperor of the armies of Upper Germany and Lower Germany.
Ceded to the Parthians by Hadrian, it became a Roman colony (Septimia Colonia Nisibis) under Septimius Severus.
Tortosa, the Dertosa of Strabo and the Colonia Julia Augusta Dertosa of numerous coins, was a city of the Ilercaones in Hispania Tarraconensis.
Victrix was situated near the site of the cathedral, and a municipality (colonia) grew up, near where the railway station now is, on the opposite side of the Ouse.
Trajan made it a Latin colony under the title of Colonia Concordia Ulpia Trajana Augusta Frugifera Hadrumetina; a dedication to the emperor Gordian the Good, found by M.
It was a rich and prosperous place under the Roman emperors, and Marcus Aurelius promoted it to the rank of a colonic as Colonia Victrix Sequanorum.
Augustus gave it the name of Colonia Julia Pisana; his grandsons Gaius and Lucius were patrons of the colony, and after their death monuments were erected in their honour, as is recorded in two long inscriptions still extant.
130 under the name Colonia Aelia Hadriana Augusta Iconiensium.
It was never made a colonia, though veterans of the Praetorian guard and of the eighth (Augusta) and ninth legions were settled there by Vespasian, who belonged to a Reatine family and was born in the neighbourhood.
One was a Roman colonia (municipality of Roman citizens, self-governing) situated on the hill near the present Fourvieres (Forum vetus)..
It is mentioned in the war of 41 B.C., and received a colony of veterans under the triumviri (Colonia coniuncta Julia Sutrina).
Vespasian, as a reward for its having taken his part, gave the town part of the territory of Capua, and installed more colonists there - whence it took the title Colonia Flavia, which it retained till the end of the empire.
It was not constructed before the reign of Vespasian, for inscriptions record that it was built by the Colonia Flavia.
Heliopolis was made a colonia probably by Octavian (coins of 1 st century A.D.), and there must have been a Baal temple there in which Trajan consulted the oracle.
Setif (12,261), the Sitifis Colonia of the Romans, is 50 m.
We possess the charter of the colony planted at Urso in southern Spain under the name of Colonia Julia Genetiva Urbanorum.
The chief towns of Upper Moesia were: Singidunum (Belgrade), Viminacium (sometimes called municipium Aelium; Kostolatz), Bononia (Widdin), Ratiaria (Artcher): of Lower Moesia; Oescus (colonia Ulpia, Gigen), Novae (near Sistova, the chief seat of Theodoric), Nicopolis ad Istrum (Nikup), really on the Iatrus or Yantra, Odessus (Varna), Tomi (Kustendje), to which the poet Ovid was banished.
The common form of land tenure is the colonia perpetua, by which the landlord grants a lease to the tenant and his heirs for ever, in return for a rent, payable in kind, and fixed at a certain proportion of the produce.
The portion of the olive crop due to the landlord, whether by colonia or ordinary lease, is paid, not according to the actual harvest, but in keeping with the estimates of valuators mutually appointed, who, just before the fruit is ripe, calculate how much each tree will probably yield.
Within a few years of the Claudian invasion a colonia, or municipality of time-expired soldiers, had been planted in the old native capital of Colchester (Camulodunum), and though it served at first mainly as a fortress and thus provoked British hatred, it came soon to exercise a civilizing influence.
Another colonia is planted at Lincoln (Lindum), and a third at Gloucester (Glevum) in 96.
The Roman town, Colonia Victricensis Camalodunum (or Camulodunum), was of great importance.
In 42 B.C., after the victory gained over the senatorial party by Octavius and Antony, it became a Roman colony, Colonia Julia Philippensis, which was probably increased after the battle of Actium (Col.
Of Spain ceded to the Portuguese, in exchange for the fortified village of Colonia del Sacramento (Uruguay), both the district of La Guayra and a territory of some 20,000 sq.
50 a Roman colony, Colonia, was planted by the emperor Claudius, at the request of his wife Agrippina, who was born in the place.
After her it was named Colonia Agrippina or Agrippinensis.
Schultze and C. Steuernagel, Colonia Agrippinensis (Bonn, 1895); K.
3 At a later period, however, it took a prominent part in the outbreak of the nations of central Italy, known as the Social War (91-89 B.C.), when it withstood a long siege by Sulla, and was one of the last cities of Campania that were reduced by the Roman arms. The inhabitants were admitted to the Roman franchise, but a military colony was settled in their territory in 80 B.C. by Sulla (Colonia Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum), and the whole population was rapidly Romanized.
A number of important towns grew up, among which we may mention Trier (Augusta Trevirorum), Cologne (Colonia Agrippinensis),Bonn (Bonna), Worms(Borbetomagus), Spires (Noviomagus), Strassburg (Argentoratum) and Augsburg (Augusta Vindelicorum).
Crassus took it in 83 B.C.; and a colony was founded there by Octavian, including some soldiers of the 41st legion, which only existed in his time, after which it bore the name Colonia Iulia fida Tuder.
It was a municipium under the early empire, but was converted into a colonia under Antoninus Pius by Herodes Atticus, who provided it with a water-supply.
It became a Roman colonia under Augustus, and it is from this period that the fertile plain, hitherto called the plain of Leontini, begins to be called the plain of Catina.
Caesar having bestowed a part of its territory on his supporter Sittius, the latter introduced a Roman settlement, and the town for a time was known as Colonia Sittianorum.
Melli, La Colonia Eritrea dalle sue origini al anno 1por (Parma, 1901); G.
Colonia, from colones, a cultivator), a term most commonly used to denote a settlement of the subjects of a sovereign state in lands beyond its boundaries, owning no allegiance to any foreign power, and retaining a greater or less degree of dependence on the mother country.
No Roman colony started without the sanction and direction of the public authority; and while the Colonia Romana differed from the Colonia Latina in that the former permitted its members to retain their political rights intact, the colony, whether planted within the bounds of Italy or in provinces such as Gaul or Britain, remained an integral part of the Roman state.