Van Bemmelen has shown that the red hydrates are really colloids, the amount of water retained being such that its vapour pressure equals the pressure of the aqueous vapour in the superincumbent atmosphere.
His early work on the movements of gases led him to examine the spontaneous movements of liquids, and as a result of the experiments he divided bodies into two classes - crystalloids, such as common salt, and colloids, of which gum-arabic is a type - the former having high and the latter low diffusibility.
Some of these colloids dissolve in water or other liquids to form solutions called by Graham hydrosols; Graham named the solids formed by the setting or coagulation of these liquids hydrogels.
Solutions of colloids in solvents such as water and alcohol seem to be divisible into two classes.
Electrolytes possess the power of coagulating solutions of colloids such as albumen and arsenious sulphide.
Again the two classes of substances mentioned above were found to be distinguished, and Graham called the slowly diffusible non-crystalline bodies colloids, in contrast to the quickly diffusible crystalloids.
Pickering showed that the three synthesized colloids of Grimaux in the same way produced coagulation in pigmented animals, but failed to do so in albinoes.
The power of coagulation of colloids shown by electrolytes depends in a curious manner on the chemical valency of the effective ion.
Hardy, who found that certain colloids did possess electric charges, the sign of which depended on whether the surrounding liquid was slightly acid or slightly alkaline.