In this respect the lines of the United Kingdom are far ahead of those of any other country, and a diminution of accidents, particularly of collisions, has resulted therefrom.
Accidents to passengers other than those caused by collisions or derailments of trains are very largely due to causes which it is fair to class either as unavoidable or as due mainly to the fault or carelessness of the victim himself.
Collisions, on the other hand, are preventable, and derailments nearly so, and the records of deaths and injuries in this class in successive years are therefore justly taken as an index to the efficiency with which the railways are managed.
On the British railways the men who run the trains are safeguarded very efficiently, and the collisions and derailments which are serious enough to do injury to the trainmen or the enginemen are really rare.
The roadway, tracks and rolling stock are so well maintained that those causes which lead to the worst derailments have been eliminated almost completely, and the record of serious collisions has been reduced nearly to zero by the universal use of the block system and by systematic precautions at junctions.
Apart from collisions and derailments, a large proportion of all accidents is found to be due primarily to want of care on the part of the victims. Accidents to workmen in marshalling, shunting, distributing and running trains, engines and cars, may be taken as the most important class, after train accidents, because this work is necessary and important and yet involves considerable hazard.
In the year ending June 30, 1909, exclusive of casualties due to collisions, derailments and other accidents to trains, the number killed was 811 and of injured 28,156 (Accident Bulletin, No.
In the thickly settled parts of the United States the number of trespassers killed on the railway tracks, including vagrants who suffer in collisions and derailments while stealing rides, is very large.
Aggregate 6 killed and 454 injured; the six deaths were due to collisions, while of the cases of injury 372 occurred by collisions, 47 by derailments, and 35 by other accidents to trains.
Collisions between passenger trains or parts of passenger trains.
Collisions between passenger trains and goods or mineral trains or light-engines .
Collisions between goods trains or parts of goods trains and light-engines .
Collisions between trains and vehicles standing foul of the line .
Collisions between trains and buffer-stops or vehicles standing against bufferstops: (a) From trains running into stations or sidings at too high a speed.
The same series of experimental studies led him to conclusions concerning the chief causes of collisions at sea; and these conclusions, though stoutly combated in many quarters at the outset, have since been generally accepted, and were ultimately embodied in the international code of regulations adopted by the leading maritime nations on the recommendation of a conference at Washington in 1889.
Servia had long resented the occupation of her fortresses by Turkish troops; frequent collisions arising from this source resulted in June 1862 in the bombardment of Belgrade; some slight concessions were then made to Servia, but it was not until 1867 that, through the mediation of England and other powers, she succeeded in obtaining the withdrawal of the Turkish garrisons.
He had as colleague Franz Gomarus, a strong supralapsarian, perfervid, irrepressible; and their collisions, personal, official, political, tended to develop and define their respective positions.
At higher densities it is probable that more complex aggregates would be formed, so that as the effect of the collisions became more important c would cease to be a function of the temperature only; experiment, indeed, shows this to be the case.
In air of considerable density the mean free path of a molecule, between its collisions with other molecules, is exceedingly small, and any such increase of gaseous pressure in front of the black surface would be immediately neutralized by flow of the gas from places of high to places of low pressure.
The hypothesis that the state was steady, so that interchanges arising from convection and collisions of the molecules produced no aggregate result, enabled him to interpret the new constants involved in this law of distribution, in terms of the temperature and its spacial differential coefficients, and thence to express the components of the kinetic stress at each point in the medium in terms of these quantities.
The influence of wind and tide breaks up the frozen surface of the sea, and sheets yielding to the pressures slide over or under one another and are worked together into a hummocky ice-pack, the irregularities on the surface of which, caused by repeated fractures and collisions, may be from 10 to 20 ft.
Number of collisions with other free molecules and with the sides of the vessel, fall back again into the liquid.
Thus the contribution to the total impulsive pressure exerted on the area dS in time dt from this cause is mu X udtdS X (11 3 m 3 /,r 3)e hm (u2+v2+w2 )dudvdw (I o) The total pressure exerted in bringing the centres of gravity of all the colliding molecules to rest normally to the boundary is obtained by first integrating this expression with respect to u, v, w, the limits being all values for which collisions are possible (namely from - co too for u, and from - oo to + oo for v and w), and then summing for all kinds of molecules in the gas.
The molecules of gases for which n = o must accordingly be spherical in shape and in internal structure, or at least must behave at collisions as though they were spherical, for they would otherwise be set into rotation by the forces experienced at collisions.
The difficulty is further diminished when it is proved, as it can be proved, 2 that the modes of energy represented in the atomic spectrum acquire energy so slowly that the atom might undergo collisions with other atoms for centuries before being set into oscillations which would possess an appreciable amount of energy.
Their effect was to precipitate collisions between all three parties.
The first actual collisions, the Cecora campaign of 1620 and the Khotin War of 1621 (for John Albert's Moldavian raid does not count), were due to the depredations of the Cossacks upon the dominions of the sultan by land and sea, and in all subsequent treaties between the two powers the most essential clause was always that which bound the Republic to keep its freebooters in order.
It also provides that: " Vessels engaged in laying or repairing submarine cables shall conform to the regulations as to signals which have been, or may be, adopted by mutual agreement among the high contracting parties with the view of preventing collisions at sea.
The question could not be settled by experiments made at the same temperature, and if the temperature is altered the question is complicated by the distinction which would probably have to be drawn between the number of collisions and their intensity.
The beginnings of Austrian sovereignty were marked by many collisions between the representatives of the new rulers and the States General, and provincial " states."
In 1883-1884 there were a number of serious strikes, collisions between the police and the workmen, followed by assassinations; it was a peculiarity of Austrian anarchists that in some cases they united robbery to murder.
At Prague, Graz and other towns, demonstrations and collisions with the police were frequent.
Collisions on the southern border of the protectorate between French and German troops led in 1905-1906 to an accurate survey of the south and east frontier regions and to a new convention (1908) whereby for the straight lines marking the frontier in former agreements natural features were largely substituted.
It was Denmark's obsequiousness to Russia which led to the first of her unfortunate collisions with Great Britain.
Boltzmann Suggested That A Diatomic Molecule Regarded As A Rigid Dumb Bell Or Figure Of Rotation, Might Have Only Five Effective Degrees Of Freedom, Since The Energy Of Rotation About The Axis Of Symmetry Could Not Be Altered By Collisions Between The Molecules.
At the present time serious collisions between sheep and cattle owners are rare.
Hence the clergy were left to do as they pleased, so long as they respected the law of the land; and most of the modern collisions between Church and State have occurred on the debateable ground where their respective spheres overlap, over questions concerning education or the marriage-laws.
Many colonists took to trade, and notwithstanding numerous collisions with neighbouring tribes the settlement attained a measure of prosperity.
Such collisions are inevitable in consequence of the different velocities acquired by the drops under the action of the capillary force, as they break away irregularly from the continuous portion of the jet.
Regular vibration has, however, the effect of postponing the collisions and consequent scattering of the drops, and in the case of a direction of motion less nearly vertical, may prevent them altogether.