After the year 1884 Labour troubles became very frequent, the New South Wales coal miners in particular being at war with the colliery owners during the greater part of the six years intervening between then and what is called the Great Strike.
This difficulty was overcome by paving or " causewaying " the road up to the level of the top of the flanges, but 1 " Another thing that is remarkable is their way-leaves; for, when men have pieces of ground between the colliery and the river, they sell leave to lead coals over their ground " (Roger North).
Richard Trevithick, indeed, had in 1804 tried a high-pressure steam locomotive, with smooth wheels, on a plate-way near Merthyr Tydvil, but it was found more expensive than horses; John Blenkinsop in 1811 patented an engine with cogged wheel and rack-rail which was used, with commercial success, to convey coal from his Middleton colliery to Leeds; William Hedley in 1813 built two locomotives - Puffing Billy and Wylam Dilly - for hauling coal from Wylam Colliery, near Newcastle; and in the following year George Stephenson's first engine, the Blucher, drew a train of eight loaded wagons, weighing 30 tons, at a speed of 4 m.
The earliest arrangement of this kind was patented by John Blenkinsop, of the Middleton Colliery, near Leeds, in 1811, and an engine built on his plan by Mathew Murray, also of Leeds, began in 1812 to haul coals from Middleton to Leeds over a line 32 m.
Though a busy colliery may send off its product by the train-load to an important town, the wagons will usually be addressed to a number of different consignees at different depots in different parts of the town, and therefore the train will have to be broken up somewhere short of its destination and its trucks rearranged, together with those of other trains similarly constituted, into fresh trains for conveyance to the various depots.
He joined a Methodist society at Burslem, but business taking him at the close of 1800 to the colliery district of Harrisehead and Kidsgrove, he was so impressed by the prevailing ignorance and debasement that he began a religious revival of the district.
In connexion with the Warora colliery there is a fire-clay business.
The Mopani colliery, which dates back to 1860, is worked by a joint-stock company.
Still they fell far short of the requirements of the district for in 1865 the Taff Vale Railway Company opened a dock of 26 acres under the headland at Penarth, while in 1884 a group of colliery owners, dissatisfied with their treatment at Cardiff, obtained powers to construct docks at Barry which are now 114 acres in extent.
The direction of striae on the underlying quartzitic rocks, particularly well seen near the Douglas colliery, Balmoral, point to an ice movement from the north-north-west to south-south-east.
Hoisting buckets or kibbles are employed for small (From The Colliery Engineer, May 1897.) FIG.
The following works may also be consulted: Books - Bertolio, Coltivazione delle minere (Milan, 1902); Brown, The Organization of Gold Mining Business (Glasgow, 1897); Brough, Mine Surveying (12th ed., London, 1906); Bulman and Redmayne, Colliery Working and Management (London, 1896); Colomer, Exploitation des mines (Paris, 1899); Curle, The Gold Mines of the World (2nd ed., London, 1902); Demanet, Traite d'exploitation des mines de houille (2nd ed., Brussels, vols.
There is reason to believe, on the evidence of two pay-bills, that for a short time in 1755 and 1756 Hutton worked in Old Long Benton colliery; at any rate, on Ivison's promotion to a living, Hutton succeeded to the Jesmond school, whence, in consequence of increasing pupils, he removed to Stote's Hall.
The sinking of colliery shafts, however, differs considerably from that of other mines, owing to their generally large size, and the difficulties nkingof g g y g ?
The size and form of colliery shafts vary in different districts.
Since the accident at Hartley colliery in 1862, caused by the breaking of the pumping-engine beam, which fell into the shaft and blocked it up, whereby the whole of the men then at work in the mine were starved to death, it has been made compulsory upon mine-owners in the United Kingdom to have two pits for each working, in place of the single one divided by walls or brattices which was formerly thought sufficient.
The laying out of a colliery, after the coal has been won, by sinkings or levels, may be accomplished in various ways, according to the nature of the coal, its thickness and dip, and the extent of ground to be worked.
In a large colliery where the shafts are situated near the centre of the field, and the workings extend on all sides, both to the dip and rise, the drawing roads for the coal may be of three different kinds - (r) levels driven at right angles to the dip, suitable for horse roads, (2) rise ways, known as jinny roads, jig-brows, or up-brows, which, when of sufficient slope, may be used as self-acting planes, i.e.
One of the most important branches of colliery work is the management of the ventilation, involving as it does the supply of fresh air to the men working in the pit, as well as the removal of inflammable gases that may be given off by the coal.
The quantity of air required for a large colliery depends upon the number of men employed, as for actual respiration from zoo to 200 cub.
The conclusions arrived at by the royal commission of 1891, which may be taken as generally representative of the views of British colliery engineers, are as follows: - I.
Meyer at the Shamrock colliery in Westphalia, where a body of men are kept in systematic training for its use at a special rescue station.
There have been several instances of this being done in the fiery pits in the Barnsley district, notably at the great explosion at the Oaks colliery in 1866, when 360 lives were lost.
The different elements making up the drawing arrangements of a colliery are - (r) the cage, (2) the shaft or pit fittings, (3) the drawing-rope, (4) the engine and (5) the surface arrangements.
Many colliery managers, however, prefer to have only two opposite guides, as being safer.
In Belgium and the north of France flat ropes of aloe fibre (Manila hemp or plantain fibre) are in high repute, being considered preferable by many colliery managers to wire, in spite of their great weight.
In one of the best-known examples, the Zollern colliery in Westphalia, the Koepe system is used, the winding disk being driven by two motors of 1200 H.P. each on the same shaft.
The surface arrangements of a modern deep colliery are of considerable extent and complexity, the central feature being the head gear or pit frame carrying the guide pulleys Surface which lead the winding roes from the axis of the it arrange= g P P to the drum.
Some characteristic figures of the yield for British collieries in 1898 are given below: Albion Colliery, South t 551,000 tons in a year for one Wales s shaft and one engine.
Silksworth Colliery, North535,000 tons in a year for shaft umberland 580 yds.
Bolsover Colliery, Derby 598,7 9 8 tons in 279 days, shaft 365 yds.
Denaby Main Colliery, 629,947 tons in 281 days, maxiYorkshire mum per day 2673 tons.
At Cadeby Main colliery near Doncaster in 1906, 3360 tons were drawn in fourteen hours from one pit 763 yds.
A convenient digest of the evidence classified according to subjects was published by the Colliery Guardian newspaper in three quarto volumes in 1905-1907, and the leading points bearing on the extension and resources of the different districts were incorporated in the fifth edition (1905) of Professor Edward Hull's Coal Fields of Great Britain.
This subject he was led to study by the experience of a colliery engineman, who noticed that he received a sharp shock on exposing one hand to a jet of steam issuing from a boiler with which his other hand was in contact, and the inquiry was followed by the invention of the "hydro-electric" machine, a powerful generator of electricity, which was thought worthy of careful investigation by Faraday.
Barry owes its seaport to the determination of a number of colliery owners to secure an alternative port to Cardiff, with an independent railway to it from the coalfields.
The colliery, which was opened in 1807, has frequently been the scene of dreadful accidents, notably on the 23rd of October 1821, when 52 lives were lost.
North British or Caledonian railway or both, are Bothwell Park, Carfin, Chapelhall, Bellshill (pop. 8786), Holytown, Mossend, Newarthill,Uddingston (pop. 7463), Clydesdale, Hamilton Palace, Colliery Rows and Tennochside.
The industrial population is employed in large collieries in the vicinity; and here, on the 7th of September 1893, serious riots during a strike resulted in the destruction of some of the colliery works belonging to Lord Masham, and were not quelled without military intervention and some bloodshed.
The coal exported is brought from the Kaiping colliery to the east of Tientsin; its output in 1885 was 181,039 tons and in 1904 28,956 tons.
The district is rich in minerals, and has large collieries, and a colliery company's institute; iron goods are manufactured.
In 1847 Lyon Playfair informed him of a spring of petroleum which had made its appearance at Ridding's Colliery at Alfreton in Derbyshire, and in the following year he began to utilize it for making both burning and lubricating oils.
Brakpan, the largest colliery in South Africa, lies midway between the places named.