There are extensive collieries, and the other industries include cotton manufactures, calico-printing, hat-making, iron-founding, engineering and the manufacture of firebricks and tiles.
A large number of cotton mills furnish the chief source of industry; printing, dyeing and bleaching of cotton and calico, spinning and weaving machine making, iron and steel works, and collieries in the neighbourhood, are also important.
Cotton spinning and printing works, cotton-mill machinery works, dye-works and chemical manufactures, and neighbouring collieries maintain the industrial population.
Heaviside in 1887 succeeded in communicating by telephonic speech between the surface of the earth and the subterranean galleries of the Broomhill collieries, 350 feet deep, by laying above and below ground two complete metallic circuits, each about 24 m.
It may be supposed that originally the public roads, when worn by the cartage of the coal, were repaired by laying planks of timber at the bottom of the ruts, and that then the planks were laid on the surface of special roads or ways' formed between the collieries and the river.
In South Wales again, where in 1811 the railways in connexion with canals, collieries and iron and copper works had a total length of nearly 150 miles, the plate-way was almost universal.
The iron tramway or railway had been known for half a century and had come into considerable use in connexion with collieries and quarries before it was realized that for the carriage FIG.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal at several collieries in the vicinity; and at Fountain Springs, 1 m.
There are collieries and freestone quarries in the neighbourhood.
Large hosiery works employ many of the inhabitants,, and collieries are worked in the parish.
The chief article of export is coal from the neighbouring collieries, the other leading exports being ale, whisky, glass and manufactured goods.
The modern growth of the town is attributable to the valuable collieries of the neighbourhood, and to manufactures of nails and chains.
On the south bank of the river is the township and urban district of Cowpen (pop. 17,879), with collieries and glass works; coal is shipped from this point by river.
Cotton spinning and power-loom weaving are the chief of numerous manufacturing industries, and there are large collieries in the vicinity.
In that year the government sanctioned the building of a " steam tramway " - a railway in all but name - from the Boksburg collieries to the Rand gold mines.
The principal collieries are those at Boksburg and at Brakpan, also on the East Rand, with a coal area of 2400 acres; at Vereeniging and Klerksdorp, near the Vaal; at Watervaal, 12 m.
Animal haulage is employed chiefly in collieries and large metal mines; sometimes for main haulage lines, but oftener for distributing empty cars and making up trains for mechanical haulage.
(For details see Hughes, Text-book of Coal Mining, pp. 236-272; Hildenbrand, Underground Haulage by Wire Rope.) Rope haulage is widely used in collieries, and sometimes in other mines having large lateral extent and heavy traffic. With the tail-rope system, cars are run in long trains at high speed, curves and branches are easily worked, and gradients may be steep, though undulating gradients are somewhat disadvantageous.
Occasionally, at very gassy and dangerous collieries, two fans and driving engines are erected at the same air shaft, and in case of accident to the fan in operation the other can be started within a few minutes.
In England are several collieries over 3000 ft., and in Belgium two are nearly 4000 ft.
Large glass-bottle and earthenware-jar works, chemical works, and neighbouring collieries employ the inhabitants.
In the neighbourhood there are numerous large collieries, and coal is shipped from wharves on the riverside, vessels of 300 or 400 tons being able to reach the quays at high tide.
Collieries and brickworks employ the large industrial population.
In view of this opinion and of the exhaustion of the shallower collieries we look forward to a time, not far distant, when the rate of increase of output will be slower, to be followed by a period of stationary output, and then a gradual decline."
The opening and laying out, or, as it is generally called, "winning," of new collieries is rarely Prelimin- undertaken without a ary trial preliminary examination of coal= of the character of the workings.
The methods adopted in driving levels for collieries are generally similar to those adopted in other mines.
The great increase in the size of the pillars in the best modern collieries worked upon this principle has, however, done much to approximate the two systems to an equality in other respects.
In some anthracite collieries in America the small coal or culm and other waste are washed into the exhausted workings by water which gives a compact mass filling the excavation when the water has drained away.
The lighting of underground workings in collieries is closely connected with the subject of ventilation.
Oil lamps are employed in many of the Scotch collieries, and are almost universally used in Belgium and other European countries.
The buildings near the pit bottom, such as the stables and lamp cabin, and even the main roads for some distance, are often in large collieries lighted with gas brought from the surface, or in some cases the gas given off by the coal is used for the same purpose.
Coal from the collieries of the vicinity is largely exported.
From some of the adjacent collieries excellent steam coal is obtained.
A light railway, leading to several important collieries, runs for 13 m.
Alsace-Lorraine had canals for connecting the Rhine with the Rhone and the Marne, a branch serving the collieries of the Saar valley.
Anthracite and steam-coal from the collieries of the coast and along the Loughor Valley are exported from the extensive docks; and there are also large works for the smelting of copper and the manufacture of tin plates.
At Llangollen are linen and woollen manufactures, and near are collieries, lime and iron works.
The industrial population is employed in large collieries in the vicinity; and here, on the 7th of September 1893, serious riots during a strike resulted in the destruction of some of the colliery works belonging to Lord Masham, and were not quelled without military intervention and some bloodshed.
The town is of modern growth and depends upon its cotton mills and the large collieries in the neighbourhood.
They include worsted spinning mills; collieries, ironstone mines, quarries and brickworks; the manufacture of iron and steel, both in the rough and in the form of finished articles, as locomotives, bridge castings, ships' engines, gun castings and shells, &c. The parliamentary borough returns one member.
In the neighbourhood are collieries and stone quarries.
The neighbourhood abounds in ironworks, collieries, quarries and potteries, and is thickly populated.