There are extensive collieries, and the other industries include cotton manufactures, calico-printing, hat-making, iron-founding, engineering and the manufacture of firebricks and tiles.
A large number of cotton mills furnish the chief source of industry; printing, dyeing and bleaching of cotton and calico, spinning and weaving machine making, iron and steel works, and collieries in the neighbourhood, are also important.
Cotton spinning and printing works, cotton-mill machinery works, dye-works and chemical manufactures, and neighbouring collieries maintain the industrial population.
Heaviside in 1887 succeeded in communicating by telephonic speech between the surface of the earth and the subterranean galleries of the Broomhill collieries, 350 feet deep, by laying above and below ground two complete metallic circuits, each about 24 m.
It may be supposed that originally the public roads, when worn by the cartage of the coal, were repaired by laying planks of timber at the bottom of the ruts, and that then the planks were laid on the surface of special roads or ways' formed between the collieries and the river.
In South Wales again, where in 1811 the railways in connexion with canals, collieries and iron and copper works had a total length of nearly 150 miles, the plate-way was almost universal.
The iron tramway or railway had been known for half a century and had come into considerable use in connexion with collieries and quarries before it was realized that for the carriage FIG.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal at several collieries in the vicinity; and at Fountain Springs, 1 m.
There are collieries and freestone quarries in the neighbourhood.
Large hosiery works employ many of the inhabitants,, and collieries are worked in the parish.
The chief article of export is coal from the neighbouring collieries, the other leading exports being ale, whisky, glass and manufactured goods.
The modern growth of the town is attributable to the valuable collieries of the neighbourhood, and to manufactures of nails and chains.
On the south bank of the river is the township and urban district of Cowpen (pop. 17,879), with collieries and glass works; coal is shipped from this point by river.
Cotton spinning and power-loom weaving are the chief of numerous manufacturing industries, and there are large collieries in the vicinity.
In that year the government sanctioned the building of a " steam tramway " - a railway in all but name - from the Boksburg collieries to the Rand gold mines.
The principal collieries are those at Boksburg and at Brakpan, also on the East Rand, with a coal area of 2400 acres; at Vereeniging and Klerksdorp, near the Vaal; at Watervaal, 12 m.
Animal haulage is employed chiefly in collieries and large metal mines; sometimes for main haulage lines, but oftener for distributing empty cars and making up trains for mechanical haulage.
(For details see Hughes, Text-book of Coal Mining, pp. 236-272; Hildenbrand, Underground Haulage by Wire Rope.) Rope haulage is widely used in collieries, and sometimes in other mines having large lateral extent and heavy traffic. With the tail-rope system, cars are run in long trains at high speed, curves and branches are easily worked, and gradients may be steep, though undulating gradients are somewhat disadvantageous.
Occasionally, at very gassy and dangerous collieries, two fans and driving engines are erected at the same air shaft, and in case of accident to the fan in operation the other can be started within a few minutes.
In England are several collieries over 3000 ft., and in Belgium two are nearly 4000 ft.
Large glass-bottle and earthenware-jar works, chemical works, and neighbouring collieries employ the inhabitants.
In the neighbourhood there are numerous large collieries, and coal is shipped from wharves on the riverside, vessels of 300 or 400 tons being able to reach the quays at high tide.
Collieries and brickworks employ the large industrial population.
In view of this opinion and of the exhaustion of the shallower collieries we look forward to a time, not far distant, when the rate of increase of output will be slower, to be followed by a period of stationary output, and then a gradual decline."
The opening and laying out, or, as it is generally called, "winning," of new collieries is rarely Prelimin- undertaken without a ary trial preliminary examination of coal= of the character of the workings.
The methods adopted in driving levels for collieries are generally similar to those adopted in other mines.
The great increase in the size of the pillars in the best modern collieries worked upon this principle has, however, done much to approximate the two systems to an equality in other respects.
In some anthracite collieries in America the small coal or culm and other waste are washed into the exhausted workings by water which gives a compact mass filling the excavation when the water has drained away.
The lighting of underground workings in collieries is closely connected with the subject of ventilation.
Oil lamps are employed in many of the Scotch collieries, and are almost universally used in Belgium and other European countries.
The buildings near the pit bottom, such as the stables and lamp cabin, and even the main roads for some distance, are often in large collieries lighted with gas brought from the surface, or in some cases the gas given off by the coal is used for the same purpose.
The engines used for winding or hoisting in collieries are usually direct-acting with a pair of horizontal cylinders coupled directly to the drum shaft.
Counterbalance chains for the winding engines are used in the collieries of the Midland districts of England.
The use of these contrivances is more common in, collieries on the continent of Europe, where in some countries they are obligatory, than in England, where they are not generally popular owing to their uncertainty in action and the constant drag on the guides when the rope slacks.
Some characteristic figures of the yield for British collieries in 1898 are given below: Albion Colliery, South t 551,000 tons in a year for one Wales s shaft and one engine.
The following list gives the depths reached in the deepest collieries in Europe in 1900, from which it will be seen that the larger number, as well as the deepest, are in Belgium: Metres.
The working of collieries in the United Kingdom is subject to the provisions of the Coal Mines Regulation Act 1887, as amended by several minor acts, administered by inspectors appointed by the Home Office, and forming a complete disciplinary code in all matters connected with coal-mining.
Coal-mining is unfortunately a dangerous occupation, more than a thousand;deaths from accident being reported annually by the inspectors of mines as occurring in the collieries of the United Kingdom.
The town lies on the south-west Yorkshire coalfield, and there are a number of collieries in the district.
There are collieries in the neighbourhood.
Cotton mills, iron foundries, brick and tile works, and collieries employ the large industrial population.
The company which took up the mining was unsuccessful, and boring ceased in 1901, but the work was resumed by the Consolidated Kent Collieries Corporation, and an extension of borings revealed in 1905 the probability of a successful development of the mining industry in Kent.
This is one of the chief manufacturing centres in the United Kingdom, and the name arises from the effect of numerous collieries and furnaces, which darken the face of the district, the buildings and the atmosphere.
The workings at the Ballycastle collieries are probably the oldest in Ireland.
The industrial population of Bishop Auckland is principally employed in the neighbouring collieries and iron works.
Woollen cloth mills, and extensive collieries in the neighbourhood, employ the large industrial population.
Cotton mills and the collieries of the neighbourhood employ the large industrial population.
At the beginning of the 19th century Mountain Ash was a small village known only by its Welsh name of Aberpenar, but from 1850, with the development of its collieries, the population rapidly increased.
The population is mainly dependent on the neighbouring collieries, but limestone quarrying is carried on to some extent.
The Leeds and Liverpool Canal intersects the township. There are large collieries, ironworks, forges, railway wagon works, and cotton mills.