- The earliest Presbyterian emigration consisted of French Huguenots under the auspices of Admiral Coligny, led to Port Royal, South Carolina, by Jean Ribaut in 1562, and to Florida (near the present St Augustine) by Rene de Laudonniere in 1564, and by Ribaut in 1565.
On the 9th of July William crossed the Rhine, and captured Malines, Termonde and Oudenarde, and was advancing southwards when the news reached him of the massacre of St Bartholomew, which deprived him of the promised aid of Coligny and his army of 12,000 men.
Admiral de Coligny made several unsuccessful endeavours to form a colony in Florida under Jean Ribault of Dieppe, Rene de Laudonniere and others, but the settlers were furiously assailed by the Spaniards and the attempt was abandoned.
The Kuprilis, both father and son, had by their haughty and uncompromising demeanour done much to alienate the old-standing friendship with France, and at the battle of St Gotthard 6000 French, under Coligny, fought on the Austrian side.
In order to secure the interest of Coligny, he gave out that his projected colony was intended to serve as a place of refuge for the persecuted Huguenots.
Coligny, Lord Burghley and William the Silent also entered into murder plots.
She conceived the project of marrying her favourite son, the duke of Anjou, to Queen Elizabeth of England, and her daughter Margaret to Henry of Navarre, To this end she became reconciled with the Protestants, and allowed Coligny to return to court and to re-enter the council.
Catherine, thinking her influence menaced, sought to regain it, first by the murder of Coligny, and, when that had failed, by the massacre of St Bartholomew (q.v.).
The leading members of the Bourbon branch of the royal family, and Gaspard de Coligny, admiral of France, were conspicuous among the converts to Calvinism.
But the Huguenots, under the inspiration of Coligny, made three attempts to found colonies to the south - at Rio de Janeiro in 1555-1567, near the present Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1562, and in Florida in 1565.
Jean Ribaut (1520-1565), leading an expedition sent out by Admiral Gaspard de Coligny (1517-1572) tofounda Huguenot colony in New France, sailed into the harbour, which he named Port Royal, on the 27th of May 1562, took possession of the region in the name of Charles IX., and established the first settlement (Fort Charles), probably on Paris Island.
During the religious wars it valiantly resisted Gaspard de Coligny in 1570, but was taken by the Huguenots in 1587.
Frederick Henry, the son of Louise de Coligny, William's fourth wife, born just before his father's murder, now succeeded to the princedom of Orange and to all his brothers' dignities, posts and property in the Netherlands.
When Coligny came to court, he received him very warmly, and seemed at first to accept the idea of an intervention in the Netherlands against the Spaniards.
During the third war of religion in France (1568-1570) he was taken by his mother to Gaspard de Coligny, leader of the Protestant forces since the death of Louis I., prince of Conde, at Jarnac, and distinguished himself at the battle of Arnay-le-Duc in Burgundy in 1569.
The town, formerly fortified, was besieged by Bertrand du Guesclin, constable of France, in 1378; it was taken several times by the English during the first half of the 15th century, and by Admiral de Coligny in 1563.
Under foot, it now demanded much more radical reform, quitting the ranks of peaceable citizens to pass into the only militant class of the time and adopt its customs. Men like Coligny, dAndelot and Cond took the place of the timid Lefvre of Etapies and the harsh and bitter Calvin; and the reform party, in contradiction to its doctrines and its doctors, became a political and religious party of opposition, with all the compromises that presupposes.
Cond and Coligny, who, having obtained liberty of conscience in January 1561, now demanded liberty of worship. The colloquy at Poissy between the cardinal of Lorraine and Theodore Bean (September 1561), did not end in the agreement hoped for, and the duke of Guise so far abused its spirit as to embroil the French Calvinists with the German I
The i9th of December 1562 the duke of Guise barred the way to Dreux against the German reinforcements of dAndelot, who after having threatened Paris were marching to join forces with the English troops for whom Coligny and Cond had paid by the cession of Havre.
The death of marshal de St Andr, and the capture of the constable de Montmorency and of Cond, which marked this indecisive battle, left Coligny and Guise face to face.
After three years the Guises reopened hostilities against Coligny, whom they accused of having plotted the murder of their chief; while the Catholics, egged on by the Spaniards, rose against the Protestants, who had been made uneasy by an interview between Catherine and her daughter Elizabeth, wife of Philip II.
Catholic propaganda, revived by the monks and the Jesuits, and backed by the armed confraternities and by Catherines favorite son, the duke of Anjou, now entrusted with a prominent part by the cardinal of Lorraine; Catherines complicity in the duke of Alvas terrible persecution in the Netherlands; and her attempt to capture Coligny and Cond at Noyers all combined to cause a fresh outbreak of hostilities in the west.
Thanks to Tavannes, the duke of Anjou gained easy victories at Jarnac over the prince of Cond, who was killed, and at Moncontour over Coligny, who was wounded (March October 1569); but these successes were rendered fruitless by the jealousy of Charles IX.
This was the culminating point of Gerinain Protestant liberty; for Coligny exacted and obtained, (1570.) first, liberty of conscience and of worship, and then, as a guarantee of the kings word, four fortified places: La Rochelle, a key to the sea; La Charit, in the centre; Cognac and Montauban in the south.
The Guises set aside, Coligny, supported as he was by Jeanne dAlbret, queen of Navarre, now received all Charles IX.s Coligny favor.
Coligny was a Protestant, but he was a Frenchman before all; and wishing to reconcile all parties in a national struggle, he trumpeted war (cornait la guerre) against Spain in the Netherlandsdespite the lukewarmness of Elizabeth of England and the Germans, and despite the counter-intrigues of the pope and of Venice.
Still seemed to see only through the eyes of Coligny; till Catherine, fearing to be supplanted by the latter, dreading the results of the threatened war with Spain, and egged on by a crowd of Italian adventurers in the pay of Spainmen like Gondi and Birague, reared like herself in the political theories and customs of their native landsaw no hope but in the assassination of this rival in her sons esteem.
A murderous attack upon Coligny, who had opposed the candidature of Catherines favorite son, the duke of Anjou, for the throne of Poland, having only succeeded in wounding him and in exciting the Calvinist leaders, who were congregated in Paris for the occasion of Marguerite deValoismarriage with the king of Navarre,Catherine and the Guises resolved together to put them all to death.
Freedom of worship in all parts of the kingdom except Paris, the rehabilitation of Coligny and the other victims of St Bartholomew, their fortified towns, and an equal number of seats in the courts of the parlements.