The coleopterous pupa (figs.
Of Coleopterous insects known to inhabit east Siberia, nearly one-third are found in western Europe.
Hartig, Die Familien der Blattwespen and Holzwespen (Berlin, 1860); Walsh, " On the Insects, Coleopterous, Hymenopterous and Dipterous, inhabiting the Galls of certain species of Willow," Proc. Ent.
Those of the highest zone are remarkable for the great predominance of predaceous species and of wingless forms. In this last respect they present a striking analogy with the endemic coleopterous fauna of oceanic islands.