The oak in Europe is liable to injury from a great variety of insect enemies: the young wood is attacked by the larvae of the small stag-beetle and several other Coleoptera, and those of the wood-leopard moth, goat moth and other Lepidoptera feed upon it occasionally; the foliage is devoured by innumerable larvae; indeed, it has been stated that half the plant-eating insects of England prey more or less upon the oak, and in some seasons it is difficult to find a leaf perfectly free from their depredations.
COLEOPTERA, a term used in zoological classification for the true beetles which form one of the best-marked and most natural of the orders into which the class Hexapoda (or Insecta) has been divided.
For the relationship of the Coleoptera to other orders of insects see Hexapoda.
The Coleoptera are almost worldwide in their distribution, being represented in the Arctic regions and on almost all oceanic islands.
The Coleoptera can be traced back farther in time than any other order of insects with complete transformations, if the structures that have been described from the Carboniferous rocks of Germany are really elytra.
The Coleoptera have been probably more assiduously studied by systematic naturalists than any other order of insects.
Students of the Coleoptera have failed to agree not only on a system of classification, but on the relative specialization of some of the groups which'.
In the Coleoptera we have to do with an ancient yet dominant order, in which there is hardly a family that does not show specialization in some point of structure or life-history.
The most interesting of the Heteromera, and perhaps of all the Coleoptera, are some beetles which pass through two or more larval forms in the course of the life-history (hypermetamorphosis).
C. Miall's Aquatic Insects (London, 1895), the special literature of the Coleoptera is enormous.
The wings of Coleoptera (including the elytra) are described and discussed by F.
For various schemes of classification of the Coleoptera see E.
Horn (Classification of Coleoptera of N.
Fowler (Coleoptera of the British Islands, 5 vols., London, 1887-1891) is the standard work; and W.
Injurious insects occur among the following orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera (both heteroptera and homoptera), Orthoptera, Neuroptera and Thysanoptera.
Among the Coleoptera or bettles there is a group of world-wide pests, the Elateridae or click beetles, the adults of the various " wireworms."
In aquatic insects various devices for obtaining or entangling air are found; these modifications are described in the special articles on the various orders of insects (Coleoptera, Hemiptera, &c.).
Among a few of the beetles or Coleoptera, and also in the neuropterous genus Mantispa, are found life-histories in which the earliest instar is campodeiform and the succeeding larval stages eruciform.
His classification was founded mainly on the nature of the wings, and five of his orders - the Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, &c.), Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (two-winged flies), Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), and Hemiptera (bugs, cicads, &c.) - are recognized to-day with nearly the same limits as he laid down.
The earwigs, cockroaches and locusts, which Linnaeus included among the Coleoptera, were early grouped into a distinct order, the Orthoptera.
From the Trias of Colorado, Scudder has described cockroaches intermediate between their Carboniferous precursors and their present-day descendants, while the existence of endopterygotous Hexapods is shown by the remains of Coleoptera of several families.
A large and dominant Holoarctic fauna, with numerous subdivisions, ranges over the great northern continents, and is characterized by the abundance of certain families like the Carahidae and Staphylinidae among the Coleoptera and the Tenthredinidae among the Hymenoptera.
The only doubt arises from the existence of insect remains, referred to the order Coleoptera, in the Silesian Culm of Steinkunzendorf near Reichenbach.
The occurrence of weevils - among the most specialized of the Coleoptera - in Triassic rocks shows us that this great order of metabolous insects had become differentiated into its leading families at the dawn of the Mesozoic era, and that we must go far back into the Palaeozoic for the origin of the Endopterygota.
The campodeiform larvae of many Coleoptera are indeed far more primitive than the neuropteran larvae, and suggest to us that the Coleoptera - modified as their wing-structure has become - arose very early from the primitive metabolous stock.
The antiquity of the Coleoptera is further shown by the great diversity of larval form and habit that has arisen in the order, and the proof afforded by the hypermetamorphic beetles that the campodeiform preceded the eruciform larva has already been emphasized.
Further references will be found appended to the special articles on the orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, &C).
In 1735 appeared the first edition of the Systema naturae of Linnaeus, in which the "Insecta" form a group equivalent to the Arthropoda of modern zoologists, and are divided into seven orders, whose names - Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, &c., founded on the nature of the wings - have become firmly established.
Sharp on the Dyticidae and other families of Coleoptera of the whole world.
The Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are especially numerous, both in species and individuals.
Orders: Myriapoda, Thysanura, Parasita, Suctoria, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Rhipiptera, Diptera.
One or two land shells, a few spiders, several Coleoptera, a small lepidopter and a few other insects are recorded, but no Orthoptera or Hymenoptera.
For a general account of the structure, development and relationships of insects, see Arthropoda and Hexapoda, while details of the form, habits and classification of insects will be found in articles on the various orders or groups of orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, Dipteria,Hemiptera,Hymenoptera,Lepidoptera,Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Thysanoptera), and in special articles on the more familiar divisions (ANT, BEE, Dragon-Fly, Earwig, &c.).
WEEVIL, Anglo-Saxon wifel, a term now commonly applied to the members of a group of Coleoptera termed the Rhyncophora.
The Curculionidae form one of the largest families amongst the Coleoptera, the number of species described exceeding 20,000, arranged in 1150 genera.
The Coleoptera are especially numerous; Mr Whymper took home with him 206 species which had been identified and described up to 1892, most of them from the uplands and most of them new to science.
Among the insects we find the Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera represented; cockroaches were particu.
Coleoptera (beetles) supply instances of mimicry of ants, wasps and Ichneumonids, and some defenceless forms of this order mimic others that are protected.
Sometimes Lepidoptera mimic protected members of other orders of insects - such as Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera; but perhaps the most singular illustrations of the phenomenon known in the order are exemplified by the larvae of the hawk-moth Chaerocampa, which imitate the heads of snakes.
The same style of coloration is found in Coleoptera of the families Cetoniidae and Cantharidae; in Diptera of the families Asilidae, Bombylidae, Tabanidae and Tachinidae; in Hemiptera of the family Reduviidae and in Lepidoptera of the family Zygaenidae.
Towards this Lycoid centre have converged Coleoptera (beetles) of the sub-order Lamellicornia (Copridae), Phytophaga; Heteromera (Cantharidae) and Longicornia; Hemiptera of the families Pyrrhocoridae, Lygaeidae and Reduviidae; Lepidoptera of the families Arctiidae and Zygaenidae; Diptera of the family Asilidae; and lastly Hymenoptera of the families Braconidae, Pompilidae, Crabronidae and Eumenidae.
The cockroaches, grasshoppers, crickets and other insects that are included in this order were first placed by C. Linne (1735) among the Coleoptera (beetles), and were later removed by him to the Hemiptera (bugs, &c.).