He permitted laymen to hold certain public offices, under surveillance of the prelates, organized a guard from among the Roman nobility, decreed a plan for redeeming the base coinage, permitted the communes a certain degree of municipal liberty, and promised the liquidation of the public debt.
Boissier, La Religion romaine; Renier, Inscriptions d'Algiers, 2510.) The Greek term Apotheosis, probably a coinage of the Hellenistic epoch, becomes more nearly technical for the deification of dead emperors.
Thus it was the Aeginetans who, within thirty or forty years of the invention of coinage by the Lydians (c. 700 B.C.), introduced to the western world a system of such incalculable value to trade.
The expansion of Levantine trade which ensued in the Hellenistic age brought especial profit to Rhodes, whose standard of coinage and maritime law became widely accepted in the Mediterranean.
It was among the towns that had the right of coinage, and it manufactured carts, baskets, &c. Cicero speaks of it as a place of some importance.
Currency.The lira (plural lire) of 100 centesimi (centimes) is equal in value to the French franc. The total coinage (exclusive of Eritrean currency) from the 1st of January 1862 to the end of 1907 was 1,104,667,116 lire (exclusive of recoinage), divided as follows: gold, 427,516,970 lire; silver, 570,097,025 lire; nickel, 23,417,000 lire; bronze, 83,636,121 lire.
In 1885 the Nevada Silver Association was formed for the purpose of advocating the free and unlimited coinage of silver.
Both parties in the state in 1888 declared in favour of free coinage, and in 1892 instructed their delegates to the national conventions to oppose any candidate who did not favour this policy.
In the election of 1896 all the parties in the state declared in favour of the free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1.
For the coinage see NUMISMATICS.
In George IV.'s reign were issued the so-called "lion shillings," bearing the royal crest, a crowned lion on a crown, a design reverted to in the coinage of Edward VII.
Before silver coinage was introduced (269 B.C.) the value of the as was about 6d., in the time of Cicero less than a halfpenny.
During the commonwealth and empire aes grave was used to denote the old as in contradistinction to the existing depreciated coin; while aes rude was applied to the original oblong coinage of primitive times.
The site of the Samnite city, which in the 4th century B.C. had a coinage of its own, is not known; the Roman town lay in the valley of the Vulturnus, and its walls (4th century) enclose a circuit of 12 m., in which are preserved remains of large baths (Thermae Herculis) and a theatre.
His principal writings are - An Essay on Miracles (1701); Chronicum preciosum (an account of the English coinage, 1707); and Free Sermons (1712), containing discourses on the death of Queen Mary, 1 He !had lost his first wife, Frances Smith; and later he had a third wife, Mary, daughter of Sir John Coke and widow of Sir Edward Hartopp.
It is interesting, as bringing out the personal element in the traditional royal seat, that an inscribed sealing belonging to the earliest period of the later palace of Cnossus bears on it the impression of two official signets with portrait heads of a man and of a boy, recalling the " associations " on the coinage of imperial Rome.
The most interesting record, however, that has been preserved of later Hellenic civilization in the island is the coinage of the Cretan cities (J.
He was severe, but just and impartial, and strove to effect necessary reforms by reducing the numbers of the Janissaries, improving the coinage, and checking the state expenditure.
The principal works on the Arsacid coinage are (after the earlier publications of Longperier, Prokesch-Ostan, &c.): Percy Gardner, The Parthian Coinage (London, 1877), and especially W.
Alexander's gold coinage, indeed (possibly not struck till after the invasion of Asia), follows in weight that of Philip's staters; but he seems at once to have adopted for his silver coins (of a smaller denomination than the tetradrachm) the Euboic-Attic standard, instead of the Phoenician, which had been Philip's.
With the conquest of Asia, Alexander conceived the plan of issuing a uniform coinage for the empire.
This imperial coinage was designed to break down the monetary predominance of Athens (Beloch, Gr.
With the exception of Ptolemaic Egypt, the Macedonian kingdoms followed in their coinage that of Alexander.
Corinth, however, was allowed to go on striking staters under Antigonus Gonatas; Ephesus, Cos and the greater cities of Phoenicia retained their right of coinage under Seleucid or Ptolemaic supremacy.
The silver coinage consisted of the mejidie (weight 24.055 grammes, 0.830 fine), equivalent to 20 piastres, and its subdivisions 10, 5, 2, I, and 2 piastre pieces.
The heavy depreciation in silver causing large losses to the government, free coinage was suspended in 1880, and the nominal value of the mejidie was reduced by decree to 19 piastres (105.26 piastres thus = £T1), while in the same year the debased currencies were reduced, altilik, the 6-piastre piece to 5 piastres, the 3-piastre piece to 22 piastres, the 12-piastre piece to 14 piastre; beshlik, the 5-piastre piece to 22 piastres, the 22-piastre piece to 1;-piastre; metallik, the 1-piastre piece to 2 piastre, the 2-piastre piece to 4 piastre, the *-piastre piece to a piastre - these values representing approximately the intrinsic value of the silver, at mejidie standard, contained in the debased coins.
In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
The amounts of Turkish gold, silver and debased coinage in circulation are approximately £T16,500,000, in gold, £T8,70o,000 (940,000,000 piastres at 108) in silver mejidies and fractions, and 200,000,000 piastres in beshlik and metallik.
At last that final expedient of weak governments, the debasing of the coinage, led to a crisis.
In the latter he advocated the unlimited coinage of silver, irrespective of international agreement, at a ratio of 16 to 1, a policy with which his name was afterwards most prominently associated.
In a campaign largely restricted to the question of free-silver coinage he was defeated for re-election in 1894, and subsequently was also defeated as the Democratic candidate for the United States Senate.
In the Democratic national convention at Chicago in 1896, during a long and heated debate with regard to the party platform, Bryan, in advocating the "plank" declaring for the free coinage of silver, of which he was the author, delivered a celebrated speech containing the passage, "You shall not press down upon the brow of labour this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."
He reformed the coinage, developed trade and commerce and introduced numerous agricultural reforms, especially on his own estates, which he was never weary of enlarging, so that on his death he was the wealthiest landowner in Denmark.
Besides the ordinary shell money, there is a sort of stone coinage, consisting of huge calcite or limestone discs or wheels from 6 in.
Metallic money is limited to nickel and bronze coins, but in 1906 the government was authorized to purchase bar silver for the coinage of pieces of the denomination of two milreis, one milreis and 500 reis (2-milreis).
The public revenues are derived from customs taxes and charges on imports and exports, transit taxes, cattle taxes, profits on coinage, receipts from state monopolies, receipts from various public services such as the post office, telegraph, Caracas waterworks, &c., and sundr y taxes, fines and other sources.
In 1908 (July 31) the total debt of Venezuela (according to official returns) consisted of the following items: The currency of Venezuela is on a gold basis, the coinage of silver and nickel is restricted, and the state issues no paper notes.
At the beginning of his reign he ordered a recast of the coinage, with serious results to commerce; civil officials were deprived of offices, which had been conferred free, but were now put up to auction; duties were imposed on exported merchandise and on goods brought into Paris; the practice of exacting heavy fines was encouraged by making the salaries of the magistrates dependent on them; and on the pretext of a crusade to free Armenia from the Turks, Charles obtained from the pope a tithe levied on the clergy, the proceeds of which he kept for his own use; he also confiscated the property of the Lombard bankers who had been invited to France by his father at a time of financial crisis.
The coinage had not only been seriously debased during the closing years of the Tokugawa regime, but large quantities of paper currency had been issued and circulated, both by many of the feudal lords, and by the central government itself, as a temporary expedient for filling an impoverished exchequer.
J52), king of the Ostrogoths, was chosen king after the death of his uncle Ildibad in 541, his real name being, as is seen from the coinage issued by him, Baduila.
The coinage began before the Roman conquest was completed; the monetary system resembles that of the Roman republic, with values analogous to denarii and quinarii.
The coinage formerly was the caroub and piastre (the latter worth about 6d.), but in 1891 the French reformed the coinage, substituting the franc as a unit, and having the money minted at Paris.
The values of the coinage are pieces of 5 and 10 centimes in bronze, of 50 centimes, 1 franc and 2 francs in silver, of 10 francs and 20 francs in gold.
This latter Act he approved only as a means of escaping the free coinage of silver, and he supported its repeal in 1893.
The silver coinage consists of the sol (100 cents), half sol (50 cents), and pieces of 20 (peseta), so and 5 cents; and the copper coinage of 1 and 2 cents.
The coinage in1906-1907was about £150,000 gold and £65,000 silver, and the total circulation in that year was estimated at £1,400,000 in gold coin and £600,000 in silver coin.
The first national coinage was begun in 1822, and the decimal system was adopted in 1863.
The symbol G was a new coinage in the 3rd century B.C. The pronunciation of C throughout the period of classical Latin was that of an unvoiced guttural stop (k).
His son Edmund, earl of Cornwall, built a great hall at Lostwithiel and decreed that the coinage of tin should be at Lostwithiel only.
Even in Roman times it kept its own coinage with the punning device of the bent arm holding a palm branch, and the head of Aphrodite on the reverse, and continued the use of the Greek language.