He had also created in1811-1812a new National Guard, organized in " cohorts " to distinguish it from the regular army, and for home defence only, and these by a skilful appeal to their patriotism and judicious pressure applied through the prefects, became a useful reservoir of half-trained men for new battalions of the active army.
From the remoter provinces, which had acquiesced in his accession, little help was to be expected; but the legions of Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia were eager in his cause, the praetorian cohorts were in themselves a formidable force and an efficient fleet gave him the mastery of the Italian seas.
One of Fred's nameless cohorts buttonholed Dean as he stepped from his vehicle, and by the time he extricated himself from her verbal grasp, the blonde was lost in the crowd at the park.
But Gladys was delighted and after a night, ostensibly in adjoining rooms, the pair were off, with giggles and tears and a proud pronouncement that Arlen had agreed to present all seven volumes of Belfair and her galactic cohorts to the waiting world of letters—in paperback form.
Later on two cohorts were quartered there and also detachments of the Classis Misenas, as the discharge certificates (tabulae honestae missionis) of the former and tombstones of the latter found in the island' show (C.I.L.
It was organized in fifteen cohorts, each comprising seven grand officers, twenty commanders, thirty officers and 350 legionaries.
These Laminiplantares are composed of six cohorts as follows: Cohors 1.
The first of them, Accipitres, comprehending all the birds-of-prey, were separated into 4 " cohorts " in his original work, but these were reduced in his appendix to two - Nyctharpages or owls with 4 families divided into 2 series, and Hemeroharpages containing all the rest, and comprising io families (the last of which is the seriema, Dicholophus) divided into 2 groups as Rapaces and Saprophagi - the latter including the vultures.
Next stands the order Gallinae with 4 " cohorts "; (I) Tetraonomorphae, comprising 2 families, the sand-grouse (Pterocles) and the grouse proper, among which the Central American Oreophasis finds itself; (2) Phasianomorphae, with 4 families, pheasants peacocks, turkeys, guinea fowls, partridges, quails, and hemipodes (Turnix); (3) Macronyches, the megapodes, with 2 families; (4) the Duodecimpennatae, the curassows and guans, also with 2 families; (5) the Struthioniformes, composed of the tinamous; and (6) the Subgrallatores with 2 families, one consisting of the curious South American genera Thinocorus and Attagis and the other of the sheathbill (Chionis).
The fifth order (the third of the Dasypaedes) is formed by the Grallatores, divided into 2 " series " - (I) Altinares, consisting of 2 " cohorts," Herodii with I family, the herons, and Pelargi with 4 families, spoonbills, ibises, storks, and the umbre (Scopus), with Balaeniceps; (2) Humilinares, also consisting of 2 " cohorts," Limicolae with 2 families, sandpipers and snipes, stilts and avocets, and Cursores with 8 families, including plovers, bustards, cranes, rails, and all the other " waders."
The sixth order, Natatores, consists of all the birds that habitually swim and a few that do not, containing 6 " cohorts ": Longipennes and Pygopodes with 3 families each; Totipalmatae with I family; Tubinares with 3 families; Impennes with I family, penguins; and Lamellirostres with 2 families, flamingoes and ducks.
The seventh order, Proceres, is divided into 2 " cohorts " - Veri with 2 families, ostriches and emeus; and Subnobiles, consisting of the genus Apteryx.
Freedmen of humbler rank, on the other hand, filled the minor offices in the administrative service, in the city cohorts, and in the army; and we shall find that they entered largely into the trades and professions when free labour began to revive.
The stretch of land between Assuan (Syene) and Maharraka (Hiera Sycaminus) was, however, regarded as belonging to the Roman empire, and Roman cohorts were stationed at the latter place.
Accordingly, the general's quarters in a camp came to be called praetorium, 6 and one of the gates porta praetoria, and the general's bodyguard cohors praetoria, or, if large enough to include several cohorts, cohortes praetoriae.
This, as founded by Augustus, consisted of nine cohorts, each l000 strong, some part of which was always with the emperor, whether in Rome or elsewhere.
Their disorderly cohorts made an attack upon Italy, which was repulsed by the Lombards, and another on Spain with the same want of success; but beyond the Rhine they embarked upon the conquest of Germany, where Clovis had already reduced to submission the country on the banks of the Maine, later known.
The organization as laid down by Napoleon in 1804 was as follows: Napoleon was grand master; a grand council of 7 grand officers administered the order; the order was divided into 15 " cohorts " of 7 grand officers, 20 commanders, 30 officers and 350 legionaries, and at the headquarters of the cohorts, for which the territory of France was separated into 15 divisions, were maintained hospitals for the support of the sick and infirm legionaries.
The army which guarded or coerced the province consisted, from the time of Hadrian onwards, of (I) three legions, the Second at Isca Silurum (Caerleon-on-Usk, q.v.), the Ninth at Eburacum (q.v.; now York), the Twentieth at Deva (q.v.; now Chester), a total of some 15,000 heavy infantry; and (2) a large but uncertain number of auxiliaries, troops of the second grade, organized in infantry cohorts or cavalry alae, each 500 or 1000 strong, and posted in castella nearer the frontiers than the legions.
In the second century the praetorian cohorts became ten in number, and at the end of it Septimius Severus reorganized them so that they consisted practically of barbarian soldiers and held constant conflict with the people of Rome.
He altered the constitution of the praetorian guard, in which only Italians, formed into nine cohorts, were enrolled.