Some psychologists prefer to restrict the term to the narrower use which excludes all mental states in which particulars are cognized, even though the universal be present also.
In connexion with this Biran treats most of the obscure problems which arise in dealing with conscious experience, such as the mode by which the organism is cognized, the mode by which the organism is distinguished from extra-organic things, and the nature of those general ideas by which the relations of things are known to us - cause, power, force, &c.
He views extensive quantity as being cognized differently from number.
It may, however, be pointed out that in so far as an object is cognized by the mind, it becomes in a sense part of the complex self-content.
Our existence depends on the fact that we are cognized by God (cogitor ergo cogito All self-consciousness is at the same time God-consciousness; our knowledge is never mere scientia, it is invariably con-scientia - a knowing with, consciousness of, or participation in God.
The sense-manifold is not to be conceived as having, per se, any of the qualities of objects as actually cognized; its parts are not cognizable per se, nor can it with propriety be said to be received successively or simultaneously.
For as data of sense are only possible objects when received in the forms of space and time, and as space and time are only cognized when determined in definite fashion by the understanding through the schema of number (quantity) or degree (quality), all intuitions are extensive quantities and contain a real element, that of sense, which has degree.
We are still able and necessitated to reflect upon the whole world of phenomena as thus cognized, and driven to inquire after its significance.