Coercive temporal authority over their bodies or estates could only be given by concession from the temporal prince.
Article 17 maintained the independence of the ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in spiritual and disciplinary matters, but reserved for the state the exclusive right to carry out coercive measures.
The coercive force, or coercivity, of a material is that reversed magnetic force which, while it is acting, just suffices to reduce the residual induction to nothing after the material has been temporarily submitted to any great magnetizing force.
A metal which has great retentiveness may at the same time have small coercive force, and it is the latter quality which is of chief importance in permanent magnets.
Hence the difficulty of imparting any considerable permanent magnetization to a short thick bar not possessed of great coercive force.
The addition of silicon in small quantities considerably diminished permeability and increased coercive force; but when the proportion amounted to 2.5% the maximum permeability (µ =5100 for H =2) was greater than that of the nearly pure iron used for comparison, while the coercive force was only 0.9.
But as the idea that bishops were successors of the apostles came to prevail, presbyters, though sharing in the deliberations, gradually ceased to share in the voting; while synods insensibly acquired more and more coercive control over the churches of the area represented.
In 1865 it adjudged Bishop Gray's letters patent, as metropolitan of Cape Town, to be powerless to enable him "to exercise any coercive jurisdiction, or hold any court or tribunal for that purpose," since the Cape colony already possessed legislative institutions when they were issued; and his deposition of Bishop Colenso was declared to be "null and void in law" (re The Bishop of Natal).
Its moral influence, and a discipline over both poor and rich, was to be not only the coercive authority of the civil power but its money.
3 Though fully conscious that monarchy in America was impossible, he wished to obtain the next best solution in an aristocratic, strongly centralized, coercive, but representative union, with devices to give weight to the influence of class and property.
When the British government seemed disposed to use coercive measures for the protection of the Armenians, he gave it clearly to be understood that any such proceeding would be opposed by Russia.
Its basis is not a coercive authority imposed upon the citizens from without, but consists in the spiritual recognition, on the part of the citizens, of that which constitutes their true nature.
Marsilius denies, not only to the pope, but to the bishops and clergy, any coercive jurisdiction or any right to pronounce on their own authority excommunications and interdicts, or in any way to impose the observation of the divine law.
Steel, which is well suited for the construction of permanent magnets, is said to possess great " coercive force."
The magnetization retained by a long thin rod, even when its coercive force is small, is sometimes little less than that which was produced by the direct action of the field.
Hopkinson pointed out that the greatest dissipation of energy which can be caused by a to-and-fro reversal is approximately represented by Coercive force X maximum induction fir.
On the other hand, the form of the third curve, with its large intercepts on the axes of H and B, denotes that the specimen to which it relates possesses both retentiveness and coercive force in a high degree; such a metal would be chosen for making good permanent magnets.
Another point to which attention is directed is the exceptionally great effect which hardening has upon the magnetic properties of chrome steel; one specimen had a coercive force of 9 when annealed, and of no less than 38 when oilhardened.
The effect of the addition of tungsten in increasing the coercive force is very clearly shown; in two specimens containing respectively 3.44 and 2.35% of tungsten the coercive force was 64.5 and 70.7.
When nickel was added to the iron in increasing quantities the coercive force increased until the proportion of nickel reached 20%; then it diminished, and when the proportion of nickel was 32% the coercive force had fallen to the exceedingly low value of 0.5.
In the case of iron containing 7.5% of tungsten (W), the residual induction had a remarkably high value; the coercive force, however, was not very great.
The Portuguese troops of the capital at first assumed a coercive attitude, but were forced to give way before the ardour and military preparations of the Brazilians, and submitted to embark for Portugal.
Hence the fear with which the political, religious and social controls were regarded came to be associated also with the specifically moral control of lower by higher feelings, and engendered the coercive element in the feeling of obligation.
But at the end of 1499 Cardinal Jimenez insisted on adopting coercive measures.
The arbitrator ex compromisso sumptus had no coercive jurisdiction, and in order to make his award effective, the agreement of reference was confirmed by a stipulation and usually provided a penalty (poena, petunia compromissa) in case of disobedience.
With a maxim such as this, it was easy for him to maintain that Elizabeth's coercive measures were political and not religious.
In colonies which have parliamentary representation the crown cannot give to a metropolitan bishop jurisdiction or coercive legal authority over suffragan bishops or over any other person.
The functions of city government may be distributed into three groups: (a) Those which are delegated by the state out of its general coercive and administrative powers, including the police power and the granting of licences; (b) those which, though done under general laws, are properly matters of local charge and subject to local regulation, such as education and the relief of the poor; and (c) those which involve no questions of policy, but are of a purely business nature, such as the paving and cleansing of streets, the construction and maintenance of drains, the provision of water, &c.
He became treasurer of the National Liberal League in 1879, but after the Irish coercive measures of 1881 he finally abandoned the Liberal party, and drifted further and further into Socialism.
Great Britain was in favour of coercion, but Russia, when sounded, replied that she " would certainly not join in any coercive measures " and she was supported by France.
The government, however, saw little reason in the events of the following months for reversing their coercive policy.
The ministry met this campaign by coercive legislation regulating the use of arms, by quartering large bodies of troops in Ireland, and by prohibiting a great meeting at Clontarf, the scene of Brian Borus victory, in the immediate neighborhood of Dublin.
His pervading characteristic, therefore, is that of an eloquent vagueness, very stimulating and touching at times, but as deficient in coercive force of matter as it is in lasting precision and elegance of form.
Colenso's Commentary on the Romans in 1861, Wilberforce endeavoured to induce the author to hold a private conference with him; but after the publication of the first two parts of the Pentateuch Critically Examined he drew up the address of the bishops which called on Colenso to resign his bishopric. In 1867 he framed the first Report of the Ritualistic Commission, in which coercive measures against ritualism were discountenanced by the use of the word "restrain" instead of "abolish" or "prohibit."
In general Grattan supported the government for time after 1782, and in particular spoke and voted for the stringent coercive legislation rendered necessary by the Whiteboy outrages in 1785; but as the years passed without Pitt's personal favour towards parliamentary reform bearing fruit in legislation, he gravitated towards the opposition, agitated for commutation of tithes in Ireland, and supported the Whigs on the regency question in 1788.