The spore cell gives rise to a " sporelarva," which is set free in the coelenteron and grows into a medusa.
By coalescence of the endoderm-layers, the coelenteron may be reduced to vessels, usually eight in number, opening into a ring-sinus surrounding the pore.
(2) The body contains but a single internal cavity, the coelenteron or gastrovascular space, which may be greatly ramified, but is not shut off into cavities distinct from the central digestive space.
The ectoderm covers the whole external surface of the animal, while the endoderm lines the coelenteron or gastrovascular space; the two layers meet each other, and become continuous, at the edge of the mouth.
As a result of this change of form the gastric cavity or coelenteron becomes of compressed lenticular form, and the endoderm lining it can be distinguished as an upper or exumbral layer and a lower or subumbral layer.
The next event is a great growth in thickness of the gelatinous mesogloea, especially on the exumbral side; as a result the flattened coelenteron is still further compressed so that in certain spots its cavity is obliterated, and its exumbral and subumbral layers of endoderm come into contact and undergo concrescence.
The cathammal areas may remain very small, mere wedge-shaped partitions dividing up the coelenteron into a four-lobed stomach, the lobes of which communicate at the periphery of the body by a spacious ring-canal.
More usually each cathamma is a wide triangular area, reducing the peripheral portion of the coelenteron to the four narrow radial canals and the ring-canal above described.
A second essential difference between Coelentera and other Metazoa (except Parazoa) is that in the former all spaces in the interior of the body are referable to a single cavity of endodermal origin, the "gas*ro-vascular cavity," often termed the coelenteron: the spaces are always originally continuous with one another, and are in almost every case permanently so.
The Coelentera may thus be briefly defined as Metazoa which exhibit two embryonic cell-layers only, - the ectoderm and endoderm, - their body-cavities being referable to a single cavity or coelenteron in the endoderm.
The Hydromedusae are distinguished from the Scyphozoa chiefly by negative characters; they have no stomodaeum, that is, no ingrowth of ectoderm at the mouth to form an oesophagus; they have no mesenteries (radiating partitions) which incompletely subdivide the coelenteron; and they have no concentration of digestive cells into special organs.
The Scyphozoa have the following features in common: - They typically exhibit an ectodermal stomodaeum; partitions or mesenteries project into their coelenteron from the body-wall, and on these are generally concentrated digestive cells (to form mesenterial filaments, phacellae or gastric filaments, &c.); the external musculature of the body-wall is circular (except in Cerianthus); the internal, longitudinal; and the sexual cells probably always arise in the endoderm.
In Actinia, as in all Anthozoan zooids, the coelenteron is not a simple cavity, as in a Hydroid, but is divided by a number of radial folds or curtains of soft tissue into a corresponding number of radial chambers.