The last great undertaking in which he was employed was the revision of his codification of the canon law, which had been all but completed before the death of Henry.
The earliest existing codification of the prayerbook is the Siddur (order) drawn up by Amram Gaon of Sura about 850.
This is a codification of halakhcth, based on all the authorities then known, some of them now lost.
His noblest achievement in this respect is the codification of the Danish laws known as the Jydske Lov (Jutland Code), which he lived to see completed a few days before his death at Vordingborg on the 28th of March 1241.
The book of Deuteronomy crystallizes a doctrine; it is the codification of teaching which presupposes a carefully prepared soil.
The Talmud shows the influence of that law in many points, and may justly be compared to it as a monument of codification based on great principles.
Many of Bentham's phrases, such as "international," "utilitarian," "codification," are valuable additions to our language; but the majority of them, especially those of Greek derivation, have taken no root in it.
In the 3rd codification, however, many provisions have been taken from the 2nd, and these are designated by the word "antiqua"; by means of these "antiqua" we are enabled in a certain measure to reconstruct the work of Leovigild.
He appeared personally before successive legislative committees, and in 1846 published a pamphlet, "The Reorganization of the Judiciary," which had its influence in persuading the New York State Constitutional Convention of that year to report in favour of a codification of the laws.
The codification, which was completed in February 1865, was adopted only in small part by the state, but it has served as a model after which most of the law codes of the United States have been constructed.
For an international commission of lawyers he prepared Draft Outlines of an International Code (1872), the submission of which resulted in the organization of the international Association for the Reform and Codification of the Laws of Nations, of which he became president.
The codification of the civil law, which soon became necessary, was effected by the promulgation in 1859 of the Mejelle, or civil code.
After the suppression of the insurrection the work of codification was resumed.
With it Tribonian's work of codification was completed.
Upon the whole subject of the codification and legislation in which Tribonian bore a part, see JusTINIAN.
A few years later Mr Harrison worked at the codification of the law with Lord Westbury, of whom he contributed an interesting notice to Nash's biography of the chan cellor.
The first result of their joint labours was the much-needed codification of the laws of Great and Little Poland in 1347.
Under Nicholas I., he was engaged in the codification of the Russian law (published in 1830 in 45 vols.), on which he also wrote some important commentaries.
In1875-1882he was corporation counsel of New York, and as such brought about a codification of the laws relating to the city, and successfully contested a large part of certain claims, largely fraudulent, against the city, amounting to about $20,000,000, and a heritage from the Tweed regime.
Plans of codification, moreover, were prepared, and largely shaped, under Maine's direction, which were carried into effect by his successors, Sir J.
In the patronage of learning and in the exercise of authority over the morals and education of youth Laud was in his proper sphere, many valuable reforms at Oxford being due to his activity, including the codification of the statutes, the statute by which public examinations were rendered obligatory for university degrees, and the ordinance for the election of proctors, the revival of the college system, of moral and religious discipline and order, and of academic dress.
The conventions drawn up at the second conference were a deliberate codification of many branches of international law.
(I) those which, without having peace for their direct object, promote friendship among men of different races and nationalities; (2) those which directly address themselves to the promoting of friendship and goodwill among peoples; (3) those which regarding peace as the immediate object of their efforts, endeavour to educate democracy in this sense; (4) those which endeavour to remove the causes of international friction by the codification of international law and the promotion of the international regulation of common interests.
Another body having a more or less similar purpose is the International Law Association, which was founded in 1873 as the " Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations," with practically the same objects as those which led to the constitution of the Institute of International Law.
The "fuero general" does not profess to supersede the consuetudines antiquorum jurium or Chindaswint's codification of these in the Lex Visigothorum; the "fuero municipal" is really for the most part but a resuscitation of usages formerly established, a recognition and definition of liberties and privileges that had long before been conceded or taken for granted.
The whole work has been similar in character to the codification of French law under Napoleon; in most matters the variety of the older system has ceased, and the law of the empire is now comprised in a limited number of codes.
Closely connected with the reform of the currency and the codification of the commercial law was the reform of the banking laws.
By a codification we understand the reduction of the whole pre-existing body of law to a new form, the re-stating it in a series of propositions, scientifically ordered, which may or may not contain some new substance, but are at any rate new in form.
It was not codification but consolidation, not remoulding but abridging.
But let it be observed, first, that to reduce the huge and confused mass of pre-existing law into the compass of these two collections was an immense practical benefit to the empire; secondly, that, whereas the work which he undertook was accomplished in seven years, the infinitely more difficult task of codification might probably have been left unfinished at Tribonian's death, or even at Justinian's own, and been abandoned by his successor; thirdly, that in the extracts preserved in the Digest we have the opinions of the greatest legal luminaries given in their own admirably lucid, philosophical and concise language, while in the extracts of which the Codex is composed we find valuable historical evidence bearing on the administration and social condition of the later Pagan and earlier Christian empire; fourthly, that Justinian's age, that is to say, the intellect of the men whose services he commanded, was quite unequal to so vast an undertaking as the fusing upon scientific principles into one new organic whole of the entire law of the empire.
The codification of the laws initiated in 1801 was never carried out during his reign; nothing was done to improve the intolerable status of the Russian peasantry; the constitution drawn up by Speranski, and passed by the emperor, remained unsigned.
In 1788 he refused re-election as governor, and entered the House of Delegates to work on the revision and codification of the state laws (published in 1794).
To him more than to any other single individual is due the great codification of the law.
The law courts, including the court of cassation, three courts of appeal, eight local courts, and 115 district courts, were put under Japanese judges, and the codification of the laws was undertaken.
The codification of the law of Augsburg in 1276 already fills a moderate volume in print (ed.
The great scholastic controversies had already begun in the schools of France; the revival of Roman law had called forth the university of Bologna, and the canonists had begun the codification of the law of the Church.
There the matter stood, until it was taken up by the "Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations" at conferences held at the Hague (1875), Bremen (1876) and Antwerp (1877).
Besides all that has been mentioned, he found time to do something for the better administration of justice (the codification of ordinances, the diminishing of the number of judges, the reduction of the expense and length of trials for the establishment of a superior system of police) and even for the improvement of the breed of horses and the increase of cattle.
This school (France and Germany, 12th to 13th century) developed a casuistical and over-ingenious interpretation - in contrast to the Spanish Talmudists who aimed at simplification and codification - and it drew upon it the saying of Nabmanides (13th cent.): " They try to force an elephant through 1 Lat.
The simplification and codification of the laws was carried out during1899-1904(see the Colonial Office annual reports, especially that for 1903, § 37).
As to the expression jus canonicum, it implies the systematic codification of ecclesiastical legislation, and had no existence previous to the labours which resulted in the Corpus juris canonici.
Having made these general observations, we must now consider the history of those texts and collections of canons which to-day form the ecclesiastical law of the Western Church: (1) up to the Decretum of Gratian, (2) up to the council of Trent, (3 and 4) up to the present day, including the codification ordered by Pius X.
This was the beginning of a codification of a common canon law, in which the sources drawn upon lose, as it were, their local character.
Had forbidden; on the other hand, the collections were no longer indefinitely swelled by the addition of new decisions in particular cases, those already existing being enough to form a basis for the codification of the abstract law; and for this reason subsequent collections contain as a rule only the " constitutions " of popes or councils, i.e.
If we now consider the laws in themselves, we shall find that the dispersed condition of the legislative documents has not been modified since the closure of the Corpus juris; on the contrary, the enormous number of pontifical constitutions, and of decrees emanating from the Roman Congregations, has greatly aggravated the situation; moreover, the attempts which have been made to resume the interrupted process of codification have entirely failed.
These drawbacks were felt a long time back, and to this feeling we owe two attempts at a supplementary codification which were made in the 16th century, both of which are "Liber known under the name of Liber septimus.
Printed as a basis for further researches; but after long deliberations the volume was suppressed, and the idea of a fresh codification was abandoned.
This codification in a series of short articles was suggested by the example of the French codes, the history of which during the 19th century is well known.
This immense undertaking involved the codification of the entire canon law, drawing it up in a clear, short and precise form, and introducing any expedient modifications and reforms. For this purpose the pope appointed.
Szalay also wrote remarkable studies on Pitt, Fox, Mirabeau and other statesmen, and contributed very considerably to the codification of Magyar law.