Timber is largely imported from the United States, Sweden and Russia; coal from Great Britain; dried codfish from Norway and Newfoundland.
Codfish was perhaps the truest basis of her commerce, which soon came to include the West Indies, Africa and southern Europe.
In the shoal waters about Juan Fernandez are found a species of codfish (possibly Gadus macrocephalus), differing in some particulars from the Newfoundland cod, and a large crayfish, both of which are caught for the Valparaiso market.
The staple diet of the labouring classes and small farmers is fish, especially the dried codfish called bacalhdo, rice, beans, maize bread and meal, olive oil, fruit and vegetables.
The imports were raw and manufactured cotton, wool and silk, wheat and maize, coal, iron and machinery, dried codfish, sugar, rice, hides and skins, oils.
In the coasting trade the exports are mostly pig-iron, codfish and some products of local industries and agriculture.