The exports consist of coffee, pepper, cardamoms and coco-nuts.
Coco-nut oil is produced on Nias and also more especially on the Nako group. A Dutch commissioner is established at Gunong Sitoli on the east coast, a settlement of Malay and Chinese traders.
It is served by the Madras railway, and is the chief seaport on the Malabar coast, and the principal exports are coffee, timber and coco-nut products.
The culture of citrus fruits, principally oranges and grape-fruit, and of pineapples and coco-nuts has been rapidly extended.
The cultivated products include coffee, the Coco-nut palm, tobacco, sugar-cane, cotton, vanilla, sorghum, earthnuts, sesame, maize, rice, beans, peas, bananas (in large quantities), yams, manioc and hemp. Animal products are ivory, hides, tortoiseshell and pearls.
The most characteristic trees are the coco-nut palm, pandanus and mangrove.
" Tunas " or cactus fruit, red peppers, " zapotes " (the fruit of various trees), " arrayan " (Myrtus arayan), " ciruelas " or Mexican plums (Spondias), guavas, " huamuchil " (Pithecolobium dulce), tamarinds, aguacates (Persea gratissima), bananas, plantains, pineapples, grapes, oranges, lemons, limes, granadillas, chirimoyas, mammees (Mammea americana), coco-nuts, cacao, mangoes, olives, gourds and melons, are among the fruits of the country, and rice, wheat, Indian corn, beans, yams, sweet potatoes, onions and " tomatoes " (Physalis) are among its better-known food products.
The Asiatic elephant; the seladang, a bison of a larger type than the Indian gaur; two varieties of rhinoceros; the honey bear (bruang), the tapir, the sambhur (rusa); the speckled deer (kijang), three varieties of mouse-deer (napoh, plandok and kanchil); the gibbon (ungka or wawa'), the siamang, another species of anthropoid ape, the brok or coco-nut monkey, so called because it is trained by the Malays to gather the nuts from the coco-nut trees, the lotong, kra, and at least twenty other kinds of monkey; the binturong (arctictis binturong), the lemur; the Asiatic tiger, the black panther, the leopard, the large wild cat (harimau akar), several varieties of jungle cat; the wild boar, the wild dog; the flying squirrel,.
Maceio is attractively situated in the midst of large plantations of coco-nut and dende palms, though the broad sandy beach in front and the open sun-burned plain behind give a barren character to its surroundings.
- Coco-nut palms, introduced about the beginning of the 19th century by the Portuguese, grow along the coast and for 80 m.
Coco-nut palms thrive;.
The Amazon basin is the richest area in the world in palms, of which the Cocoineae are confined to South America, except the coco-nut, which has perhaps spread thence into Polynesia and eastward.
The chief groups, all yielding coco-nuts, pandanus fruit and yams, are Funafuti or Ellice, Nukulailai or Mitchell, Nurakita or Sophia, Nukufetau or De Peyster, Nui or Egg, Nanomana or Hudson, and Niutao or Lynx.
The coco-nut palm and bread-fruit are of peculiar value to the inhabitants; there are sixteen varieties of the one, and twenty of the other.
The principal foods of the Samoans are vegetables, coco-nut, bread-fruit, fish and pork.
The delta of the Cauvery occupies the flat northern part, which is highly cultivated, dotted over with groves of coconut trees, and is one of the most densely populated tracts in India.
Inland the Malays live by M o e, o preference on the banks of rivers, building houses on piles some feet from the ground, and planting groves of coco-nut, betel-nut, sugar-palm and fruit-trees around their dwellings.
The most important of the animal fats are those of the ox and hog, and of the vegetable oils cotton-seed and coco-nut; it is also to be remembered that resin, although not a fat, is also important in soap-making.
Of the vegetable oils, in addition to cotton-seed and coco-nut, olive oil is the basis of soaps for calico printers and silk dyers; castor oil yields transparent soaps (under suitable treatment), whilst crude palm oil, with bone fat, is employed for making brown soap, and after bleaching it yields ordinary pale or mottled.
The cold process, which is Drily applicable to the manufacture of soaps from readily saponifiable oils, such as those of the coco-nut oil group and also from castor oil, is but little used.
By blending the coco-nut oil with other less saponifiable substances such as tallow, lard, cotton-seed oil, &c., and effecting the mixing and saponification at a slightly higher temperature, soaps are obtained which resemble milled toilet soaps.
In the first way the ordinary oil and the coco nut oil are mixed and saponified together as described above.
This, when cast into forms and allowed to harden and dry slowly, comes out as transparent soap. A class of transparent soap may also be made by the cold process, with the use of coco-nut oil, castor oil and sugar.
It generally contains a large amount of uncombined alkali, and that, with its unpleasant odour of coco-nut oil, makes it a most undesirable soap for personal use.
East of the town rises Mayon, an active volcano, and the rich volcanic soil in this region produces hemp, rice and coco-nuts.
Among the products are coco-nuts, sago, fish, trepang, timber, copra, maize, yams and tobacco.
The coco palm (Cocos nucifera) is also put to varied uses.
The coco-nut palm is most abundant in the vicinity of Baracoa.
Of other agricultural crops those of fruits are of greatest importance - bananas (which are planted about once in three years), pine-apples (planted about once in five years), coco-nuts, oranges, &c. The coco-nut industry has long been largely confined to the region about Baracoa, owing to the ruin of the trees elsewhere by a disease not yet thoroughly understood, which, appearing finally near Baracoa, threatened by 1908 to destroy the industry there as well.
Goats are bred and coco-nuts cultivated, but fishing is the chief industry.
The buildings include the residence of the administrator, barracks, a government school for natives, a mosque and Hindu temple, and the establishment of the Mission du Sacre Caur, which possesses a large plantation of coco-nut palms. Bagamoyo is in telegraphic communication with Zanzibar and with the other coast towns of German East Africa, and has regular steamship communication with Zanzibar.
The Plant Stove differs in no respect from the greenhouse except in having a greater extent of hot-water pipes for the purpose, of securing a greater degree of heat, although, as the plants in stove houses often attain a larger size, and many of them require a bed of coco-nut fibre, tan or leaf mould to supply with bottom heat, b: !, b a somewhat greater elevation may perhaps be occasionally required in some of the houses.
Coco-nuts, pine-apples and bananas, with some cocoa and coffee, are cultivated on small areas.
All the islands possess a very fertile soil; there are forests of coco-nut palms, and among the products are rice, maize, sweetpotatoes, yams, coffee, cotton, vanilla and various tropical fruits, the papaw tree being abundant.
Coco-nut palm, banana, Jamaica dogwood, manchineel and mangrove; the Tropical belt in the lower valley of the Colorado has giant cactuses.
The Mexicans understood digging channels for irrigation, especially for the cultivation of the cacahuatl, from which they taught the Europeans to prepare the beverage chocollatl; these native names passed into English as the words cacao, or coco and chocolate.
Iron was not known, but copper and tin ores were mined, and the metals combined into bronze of much the same alloy as in the Old World, of which hatchet blades and other instruments were made, though their use had not superseded that of obsidian and other sharp stone flakes for cutting, shaving, &c. Metals had passed into a currency for trading purposes, especially quills of gold-dust and T-shaped pieces of copper, while coco-beans furnished small change.
The natives live very largely on vegetable food, among the most important plants which supply them being the taro, yam, banana, bread-fruit, arrow-root, pandanus and coco-nut.
The last constitutes a valuable article of commerce in the form of copra, from which palm oil is expressed; the natives make use of this oil in made dishes, and also of the soft half-green kernel and the coco-nut " milk," the clear liquid within the nut.
Imports consist of cotton, linen and woollen fabrics, hardware, cutlery and machinery, kerosene, glass and earthenware; and the exports of cattle, sugar, tobacco, coffee, coco-nuts and fibre, dividivi and dye-woods, vegetable ivory, rubber, hides and skins, medicinal forest products, gold, silver and platinum.
Not only are rice and maize, sugar and coffee, among the widely cultivated crops, but the coco-nut, the bread-fruit, the banana and plantain, the sugar-palm, the tea-plant, the sago-palm, the coco-tree, the ground-nut, the yam, the cassava, and others besides, are of practical importance.
They have greatly encouraged the cultivation of the coco-nut among the natives, and it flourishes.