The convex side rests upon the duchy of Coburg and is in part bounded by Bavaria, while the concave side, turned towards the north, contains portions of four other Thuringian states and Prussia between its horns, which are 46 m.
The additions consisted of the duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen, founded in 1680 by Ernest, the sixth son of Ernest the Pious; the duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld, founded by John Ernest, the seventh son of Ernest the Pious, which had been united with Saxe-Coburg in 1735; and the districts of Themar, Kranichfeld and Kamburg.
After the expulsion of King Otho in 1862, the Greek nation, by a plebiscite, elected the British prince, Alfred, duke of Edinburgh (subsequently duke of Coburg), to the vacant throne, and on his refusal the national assembly requested Great Britain to nominate a candidate.
In 1680 it became the capital of a separate duchy, but in 1699 it was united with Saxe-Coburg, passing to Saxe-Meiningen in 1826.
1876), daughter of Alfred, duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was dissolved in 1901.
On the 3rd of February 1830 was signed a protocol embodying the principle of an independent Greece under Leopold of Coburg as " sovereign prince."
By the treaty of the eighteen articles, however, concluded at London on the 29th of June 1831, the kingdom of Belgium was recognized, and Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was elected king.
The newly acquired territory was named Alfred county in memory of a visit paid to Natal by Prince Alfred (afterwards duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha).
Arentschild won a notable success over the improvised Prussian and Coburg division of General v.
The centre of the rayon of the 8th corps was Darmstadt, and the Bavarian line extended from Coburg to Gemiinden.
He studied with great distinction at Greif swald and at Wittenberg, and having made a special study of languages, theology and history, was appointed professor of Greek and Latin at Coburg in 1692, professor of moral philosophy in the university of Halle in 1693, and in 1705 professor of theology at Jena.
Having graduated and begun to give lectures at Jena in 1605, he in 1606 accepted the invitation of John Casimir, duke of Coburg, to the superintendency of Heldburg and mastership of the gymnasium; soon afterwards he became general superintendent of the duchy, in which capacity he was engaged in the practical work of ecclesiastical organization until 1616, when he became theological professor at Jena, where the remainder of his life was spent.
Sachsen-Koburg-Gotha), a sovereign duchy of Germany, in Thuringia, and a constituent member of the German empire, consisting of the two formerly separate duchies of Coburg and Gotha, which lie at a distance of 14 m.
M., of which about 22 4 are in Coburg and 540 in Gotha.
The duchy of Coburg is bounded on the S.E., S., and S.W.
Lying on the south slope of the Thuringian Forest, and in the Franconian plain, the duchy of Coburg is an undulating and fertile district, reaching its highest point in the Senichshohe (1716 ft.) near Mirsdorf.
The duchy of Gotha, more than twice the size of Coburg, stretches from the south borders of Prussia along the northern slopes of the Thuringian Forest, the highest summits of which (Der grosse Beerberg, 3225 ft.; Schneekopf, 3179 ft.; and Inselsberg, 2957 ft.) rise within its borders.
A small quantity of hemp and flax is raised, but a considerable quantity of fruit and vegetables is annually produced, and some wine, in the Coburg district of Konigsberg.
The mineral wealth of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha is insignificant, small quantities of coal, lignite, ironstone and millstone being annually raised.
Coburg (pop. 1905, 24,289) and Gotha (36,893) are the chief towns of the duchies, to which they respectively give name; the latter is the capital of the united duchy.
Of these 71,512 were in Coburg and 170,920 in Gotha; the relative density in either duchy being about equal.
In Coburg the people belong to the Franconian and in Gotha to the Thuringian branch of the Teutonic family, and, according to religious confessions, almost the entire population is Lutheran, Roman Catholics only numbering some 3000 and Jews about 700.
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on a law of 1852, modified in 1874.
For its own immediate affairs each duchy has a separate diet, but in more important and general matters a common diet, formed of the members of the separate diets and meeting at Coburg and Gotha alternately, exercises authority.
The Coburg diet consists of eleven members and the Gotha diet of nineteen.
Taking both together the receipts into the exchequer on behalf of Coburg were estimated for 1909-1910 at about £ioo,000 and those for Gotha at about £200,000, while the common state expenditure amounted to about the same sum.
Besides the civil list the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha enjoys a very large private fortune, amassed chiefly by Ernest I., who sold the principality of Lichtenberg, which the congress of Vienna had bestowed upon him in recognition of his services in 1813, to Prussia for a large sum of money.
The district of Coburg came into the possession of the family of Wettin in the 14th century, and after the Wettins had become electors of Saxony this part of their lands fell at the partition of 1485 to the Ernestine branch of the house.
In 1680, as Saxe-Coburg, it was formed into a separate duchy for Albert, one of the seven sons of Ernest I., duke of Saxe-Gotha (d.
1729), who called himself duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and who left two sons, Christian Ernest and Francis Josiah, who ruled the land together, the principle of primogeniture being introduced by the survivor of the two, Francis Josiah.
Ernest, duke of Saxe-CoburgSaalfeld, exchanged Saalfeld for Gotha, took the title of duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and became the founder of the present ruling house.
When he died without sons in July 1900, the succession having been renounced by his brother, the duke of Connaught and his issue, Saxe-Coburg passed to Charles Edward, duke of Albany (b.
See Fleischmann, Zur Geschichte des Herzogtums Sachsen-Coburg (Hildburghausen, 1880); A.
Lotz, Koburgische Landesgeschichte (Coburg, 1892) .
He was a Knight of the Coburg Order, "Dem Verdienste," and of the Prussian Order, "Pour le Merite," and a member of at least ten foreign Academies.
Here in 1.793 the Austrians under Frederick of Saxe-Coburg and Clerfayt defeated the French under Dumouriez.
Only a few scattered territories were reserved for John Frederick's sons, although these were increased by the treaty of Naumburg in 1554, and on them were founded the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Meiningen and Saxe-Altenburg.
The two survivors then founded separate jurisdictions at Weimar and Coburg, though arrangements were made to exchange territories every three years.
In 1596 Saxe-Coburg gave off the branch Saxe-Eisenach; and in 1603 SaxeWeimar gave off Saxe-Altenburg, the elder Weimar line ending and the younger beginning with the latter date.
By 1638 Weimar had absorbed both Coburg and Eisenach; Altenburg remained till 1672.
Saxe-Gotha was even more subdivided; and the climax was reached about 1680, when Gotha, Coburg, Meiningen, Romhild, Eisenberg, Hildburghausen and Saalfeld were each the capital of a duchy.
The duke of Hildburghausen gave up his lands entirely for Altenburg and became duke of Saxe-Altenburg; the duke of Coburg exchanged Saalfeld for Gotha and became duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; and the duke of Saxe-Meiningen received Hildburghausen, Saalfeld and some other territories, and added Hildburghausen to his title.
VICTORIA [ALEXANDRINA VICTORIA], Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India (1819-1901), only child of Edward., duke of Kent, fourth son of King George III., and of Princess Victoria Mary Louisa of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (widow of Prince Emich Karl of Leiningen, by whom she already had two children), was born at Kensington Palace on the 24th of May 1819.
In 1817 the death of Princess Charlotte (only child of the prince regent, afterwards George IV., and wife of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, afterwards king of the Belgians), had left the ultimate succession to the throne of England, in the younger generation, so uncertain that the three unmarried sons of George III., the dukes of Clarence (afterwards William IV.),.
But she was a woman of experience, and shrewd; and fortunately she had a safe and affectionate adviser in her brother,_ Prince Leopold of Coburg, afterwards (1831) king of the Belgians,.
Louise Lehzen, a native of Coburg, had come to England as governess to the Princess Fecdore of Leiningen, the duchess of Kent's daughter 1 The question of her name, as that of one who was to be queen,.
The duchess of Kent and her brothers, King Leopold and the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, had always hoped to arrange that the queen should marry her cousin, Albert of Saxe-CoburgGotha, and the prince himself had been made acquainted with this plan from his earliest years.
Princess Alice (afterwards grand duchess of Hesse) was born on the 25th of April 1843; Prince Alfred (afterwards duke of Edinburgh and duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha) on the 6th of August 1844; Princess Helena (Princess Christian) on the 25th of May 1846; Princess Louise (duchess of Argyll) on the 18th of March 1848; and Prince Arthur (duke of Connaught) on the 1st of May 1850.
In 1894 the queen stayed for some weeks at Florence, and on her return she stopped at Coburg to witness the marriage between two of her grandchildren, the grand duke of Hesse and the Princess Victoria Melita of Coburg.