The borough is finely situated in the Wyoming Valley among the rich anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania, and its inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the coal industry; in 1906 and 1907 (when it shipped 24,081,4 9 1 tons) Luzerne county shipped more anthracite coal than any other county in Pennsylvania.
Distant, and in the vicinity are three great coalfields, the Warrior, the Coosa and the Cahaba.
Its cloth and silk manufactures are important, and owing to the opening up of extensive coalfields in the district almost every branch of iron industry is carried on.
Several smaller coalfields on the slopes of the Urals and on the Timan ridge may be added to the above.
The Polish coalfields belong to another Carboniferous area of deposit, which extended over Silesia.
In the extreme north-east are found the oldest rocks in the state - lower Devonian (the New Scotland beds of New York) and, not so old, an extension of the Lower Carboniferous which underlies the Warrior coalfields of Alabama, and which consists of cherts, limestones, sandstones and shales, with a depth of 800 to 900 ft.
The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lies on the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham.
The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lieson the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham.
To the Dundee coalfields, Vryheid (59 m.) and Hlobane (76 m.).
A railway to the Zululand coalfields was completed in 1903, and in the same year a line The attitude of the natives both in Natal proper and in Zululand caused much disquiet.
The richest coalfields are situated near Leoben, near Voitsberg and Koflach, near Eibiswald and Wies, and round Trifail, Tiiffer and Hrastnig.
In the southern coalfields it is usually known by the miners' name of " Farewell rock," from its marking the lower limit of possible coal working.
The areas containing productive coal measures are usually known as coalfields or basins, within which coal occurs in more or less regular beds, also called seams or veins, which can often be followed over a considerable length of country without change of character, although, like all stratified rocks, their continuity may be interrupted by faults or dislocations, also known as slips, hitches, heaves or troubles.
B.) The most important European coalfields are in Great Britain, Belgium and Germany.
A midland group of coalfields extends from south Lancashire to the West Riding of Yorkshire, the two greatest industrial districts Geo= in the country, southward to Warwickshire and graphical Staffordshire, and from Nottinghamshire on the east to distribu- Flintshire on the west.
In Asia the Chinese coalfields are of peculiar interest.
There is also a group of coalfields on the Atlantic seaboard of the Dominion, principally in Nova Scotia.
The questions, what is the total amount of available coal in the coalfields of Great Britain and Ireland, and how long it may be expected to last, have frequently been discussed since the early part of the 19th century, and particular attention was directed to them after the publication of Stanley Jevons's book on The Coal Question in 1865.
As the minimum workable thickness, and after making all necessary deductions, estimated the available quantity of coal in the proved coalfields of the United Kingdom as 100,914,668,167 tons.
Although in the years 1870-1903 the amount raised was 5,694,928,507 tons, this later estimate was higher by 10,707,382,769 tons than that of the previous commission, the excess being accounted for partly by the difference in the areas regarded as productive by the two commissions, and partly by new discoveries and more accurate knowledge of the coal seams. In addition it was estimated that in the proved coalfields at depths greater than 4000 ft.
Shows the quantity of coal still remaining unworked in the different coalfields at depths not exceeding 4000 f t.
The present annual output is in round numbers 230 million tons, and the calculated available resources in the proved coalfields are in round numbers 100,000 million tons, exclusive of the 40,000 million tons in the unproved coalfields, which we have thought best to regard only as probable or speculative.
' It is the general opinion of the District Commissioners that owing to physical considerations it is highly probable that the present rate of increase of the putput of coal can long continue - indeed, they think that some districts have already attained their maximum output, but that on the other hand the developments in the newer coalfields will possibly increase the total output for some years.
According to a calculation made by P. Frech in 1900, on the basis of the then rate of production, the coalfields of central France, central Bohemia, the kingdom of Saxony, the Prussian province of Saxony and the north of England, would be exhausted in 100 to 200 years, the other British coalfields, the Waldenburg-Schatzlar and that of the north of France in 250 years, those of Saarbriicken, Belgium, Aachen and Westphalia in 600 to Boo years, and those of Upper Silesia in more than 1000 years.
A more cogent reason, however, is to be found in the fact that the principal coalfields are in flat countries, where the coal can only be reached by vertical sinking.
In the South Staffordshire and other Midland coalfields, where only shallow pits are required, and the coals are thick, a pair of pits may be sunk for a very few acres, while in the North of England, on the other hand, where sinking is expensive, an area of some thousands of acres may be commanded from the same number of pits.
In connexion with the re-survey in greater detail of the coalfields by the Geological Survey a series of descriptive memoirs were undertaken, those on the North Staffordshire and Leicestershire fields, and nine parts dealing with that of South Wales, having appeared by the beginning of 1908.
An independent work on the coal resources of Scotland under the title of the Coalfields of Scotland, by R.
The coalfields of the Austrian dominions (exclusive of Hungary) are described in Die Mineralkohlen Osterreichs, published at Vienna by the Central Union of Austrian mineowners.
Systematic detailed descriptions of the French coalfields appear from time to time under the title of Etudes sur les gites mineraux de la France from the ministry of public works in Paris.
An indication of the mineral products has already been given; as regards the export trade, tin is the most important of these, but the Ombilin coalfields of Sumatra, connected by a railway with the coast, call for mention here also.
The principal coalfields that have been developed are in the vicinity of Sabinas, Coahuila.
There are large coalfields in the neighbourhood, which, indeed, extend under the town.
Many insects, &c., have been obtained from the coalfields of Saarbriick and Commentry, and from the hollow trunks of fossil trees in Nova Scotia.
Certain British coalfields have yielded good specimens: Archaeoptilus, from the Derbyshire coalfield, had a spread of wing extending to more than 14 in.; some specimens (Brodia) still exhibit traces of brilliant wing colours.
The Ombilin, issuing out of the lake on the east side and flowing through a plateau of Eocene sandstone, has on its banks the coalfields of Sungei Durian, &c., but is not serviceable as a waterway for that part of Sumatra.
In the west coast lands European influence, fertile soil, comparatively good roads, agriculture, timber, and coalfields have created populous settlements on the coast at Padang (the capital of the west coast, with 35,158 inhabitants in 1897, of whom 1640 were Europeans), Priaman, Natal, Ayer Bangis, Siboga, Singkel, and also on the plateaus at Fort de Kock, Payokombo, &c. In the east coast lands it is only at the mouths of rivers - Palembang at the mouth of the Musi, with 53,000 inhabitants, and Medan in Deli, the residence of the highest civil and military officials of the east coast, in which a fine government house has been erected - that considerable centres of population are to be found.
There is a railway connecting not only the coalfields of the Ombilin valley with Padang, but also the Ombilin river and the Lake of Singkara with the most productive and densely populated plateaus and valleys, north and south of the line of the volcanoes Singalang, Merapi and Sago.
In this band lie the coalfields of Liege, and of Mons and Charleroi.
These hills are bordered on the west by the high plain of Lorraine and the coalfields of Saarbrucken, the former being traversed by the river Mosel.
It is also the centre of one of the richest coalfields in South Africa.
All the great iron foundries and engineering works are situated in the Central Plain or Lowlands, in close proximity to the shipbuilding yards and coalfields, especially in the lower and part of the middle wards of Lanarkshire, in certain districts of Ayrshire and Renfrewshire, at and near Dumbarton, in south Stirlingshire and in some parts of East and Mid Lothian and Fife.
Coal in this neighbourhood began to be worked after the opening of a branch of the Bengal-Nagpur railway to Chhindwara and the coalfields to the north in 1905.
It was succeeded by the Labuan Coalfields Ltd.
Extensive coalfields, producing coal of fair quality, as yet undeveloped, occur in Hwang-hai Do and elsewhere.
The most important coalfields of the state lie in the Appalachian regions in the S.W.
Hull, The Coalfields of Great Britain (London, 1905); J.
Pittsburg is in the midst of the most productive coalfields in the country; the region is also rich in petroleum and natural gas.
Coal is brought to the city from the coalfields by boats on the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers as well as by rail, and great fleets of barges carry coal and other heavy freight, such as steel rails, cotton ties, sheet iron, wire and nails, down the Ohio in the winter and spring.
Besides these four coalfields there are twenty-five others of various sizes, which are only in the initial stages of development.
Trade has enormously expanded; new centres of commerce have sprung up in spots which formerly were silent jungles; new staples of trade, such as tea and jute, have rapidly attained importance; and the coalfields and iron ores have opened up prospects of a new and splendid era in the internal development of the country.
Extensive coalfields exist in the Dobrudja, and the Dimbovitza, Mehedintzi, Muscel, Prahova and Valcea departments.
The return freight movement to the Wisconsin lake ports is made up chiefly of coal from the Lake Erie shipping points for the coalfields of Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
It is served by the Pennsylvania and the Huntingdon & Broad Top Mountain railways, the latter running to the Broad Top Mountain coalfields in the S.W.
They are well seen in the high ground about Lough Allen, where the Shannon rises on them, round the Castlecomer and Killenaule coalfields, and in a broad area from the north of Clare to Killarney.
The northern coalfields are the L.
The coalfields of Hiobane are S.E.