Southward the altitude falls, Death valley and Coahuila valley being in part below the level of the sea.
COAHUILA, a northern frontier state of Mexico, bounded N.
Stock-raising was for a time the principal industry, but agriculture has been largely developed in several localities, among the chief products of which are cotton - Coahuila is the principal cotton-producing state in Mexico - Indian corn, wheat, beans, sugar and grapes.
The first Spanish settlement in the region now called Coahuila was at Saltillo in 1586, when it formed part of the province of Nueva Viscaya.
Later it became the province of Nueva Estremadura under the Spanish regime, and in 1824, under the new republican organization, it became the state of Coahuila and included Texas and Nuevo Leon.
To Monterrey, and thence westward to Trevino (formerly Venadito) in Coahuila, a station on the Mexican International.
Administration.-Texas as a part of Mexico was governed under the constitution (1827) of the "Free State of Coahuila and Texas"; a separate constitution adopted in 1835 was never recognized by the Mexican government and never went into effect.
Texas was joined to Coahuila in 1827 to form a state of the Mexican federation.
Coahuila and Texas, 1690-1725, Texas alone 1725-1824.
Coahuila and Texas, 1824-35.
Another group of lakes is to be found in the Laguna district of south-western Coahuila, where the Tlahualila, Mairan, Parras and others occupy a large lacustrine depression and receive the waters of the Nazas and Aguanaval rivers from the south-west (Durango).
The great Mapimi desert of western Coahuila is another lacustrine depression, but only marshy lagoons remain.
In eastern Coahuila, near Monclova, are the Agua Verde and Santa Maria lakes, and in eastern Chihuahua there is a similar group. The largest and most attractive of the plateau lakes is Chapala, in the state of Jalisco, about 80 m.
The tierra templada, or sub-tropical zone, rises to an elevation of 5577 ft., and comprises " the greater portions of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, nearly half of Tamaulipas, a small part of Vera Cruz, nearly the whole of Chiapas, nearly all of Oaxaca, a large portion of Guerrero, Jalisco, Sinaloa and Sonora," together with small parts of the inland states of Puebla, Mexico, Morelos and Michoacan.
The district about Parras, in southern Coahuila, produces grapes, which are principally used in the manufacture of wine and brandy.
In the sierra regions of western Chihuahua and Durango, Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosi, and the plateau states farther south, the rainfall is more abundant and the conditions more favourable.
Gold is found in Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Vera Cruz, Zacatecas, and to a limited extent in other states; silver in every state and territory except Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Tlaxcala and the Yucatan peninsula; copper in Lower California, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Sonora, Tamaulipas and some other states; mercury chiefly in Guanajuato, Guerrero, San Luis Potosi, Vera Cruz and Zacatecas; tin in Guanajuato; coal, petroleum and asphalt in 20 states, but chiefly in Coahuila, Hidalgo, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas and Vera Cruz; iron in Durango, Hidalgo, Oaxaca and other states; and lead in Hidalgo, Queretaro and in many of the silver-producing districts.
SALTILLO, a city and the capital of the state of Coahuila, Mexico, about 615 m.
In 1824 the capital of the state of Coahuila and Texas was at Saltillo.
The truce with which he followed up this success was unacceptable to the administration, and upon receiving notice to resume hostilities, he occupied Saltillo, the capital of Coahuila, and Victoria, the capital of Tamaulipas, thus completing the conquest of the north-eastern states of Mexico.
Chrysoprase, mined near Porterville and near Visalia (Tulare county), is used partly for gems, but more largely (like the vesuvianite found near Exeter, in the same county) for mosaic work; and there are ledges of fine rose quartz in the Coahuila mountains of Riverside county and near Lemon Cove, Tulare county.
In1886-1887there were some disturbances in Coahuila, New Leon, Sinaloa and Tamaulipas; subsequently hardly anything was heard of such disorders except on the Texan frontier, where in 1890 Francisco Ruiz Sandoval and in 1891 Catarino Garza made incursions into Mexico.