Commercial and technical instruction is given in various institutions comprising national establishments such as the icoles nalionales professionnelles of Armentires, Vierzon, Voiron and Nantes for the education of working men; the more advanced coles darts et mtiers of Chlons, Angers, Aix, Lille and Cluny; and the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris; schools depending on the communes and state in combination, e.g.
In February 1119 he was chosen pope at Cluny in succession to Gelasius II., and in opposition to the anti-pope Gregory VIII., who was in Rome.
Adjoining the town on the south-east is the beautifully-wooded Cluny Hill, a favourite public resort, carrying on its summit the tower, 70 ft.
So late as the 10th and even the 11th centuries we find the law of the Burgundians invoked as personal law in Cluny charters, but doubtless these passages refer to accretions of local customs rather than to actual paragraphs of the ancient code.
In November 1245 he visited the abbey of Cluny and was presented by the abbot with gifts, the value of which surprised even the papal officials.
They are now in the Cluny Museum at Paris, having been purchased for £40oo, the intrinsic value of the gold, without reckoning that of the jewels and precious stones, being not less than £600.
He occupies a high place as a hymnologist, but principally as a translator of ancient and medieval hymns, the best known being probably "Brief life is here our portion," "To thee, 0 dear, dear country," and "Jerusalem, the golden," which are included in the poem of Bernard of Cluny, De Contemptu Mundi, translated by him in full.
Here it will suffice to say that the most distinctive features of the Cluny system were (1) a notable increase and prolongation of the church services, which came to take up the greater part of the working day; (2) a strongly centralized government, whereby the houses of the order in their hundreds were strictly subject to the abbot of Cluny.
Though forming a distinct and separate organism Cluny claimed to be, and was recognized as, a body of Benedictine houses; but from that time onwards arose a number of independent bodies, or "orders," which took the Benedictine Rule as the basis of their life.
But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
It enlisted the immediate support of the regular clergy, particularly the vigorous congregation of Cluny, and of William V.
Like the pax ecclesiae it found ardent champions in the regular clergy, especially in Odilo (962-1049), the fifth abbot of Cluny, and soon spread over all France.
Setting out shortly after Christmas, he had a meeting with abbot Hugo of Cluny at Besancon, where he was joined by the young monk Hildebrand, who afterwards became Pope Gregory VII.; arriving in pilgrim garb at Rome in the following February, he was received with much cordiality, and at his consecration assumed the name of Leo IX.
The British Museum and the Musee Cluny in Paris have fine collections of them, mainly dredged from the Thames and the Seine.
A large number of the reformed monasteries attached themselves to the congregation of Cluny, thus assuring the influence of reformed monasticism upon the Church, and securing likewise its independence of the diocesan bishops, since the abbot of Cluny was subordinate of the pope alone.
Innocent II., dedicating the great church of Cluny in 1132, granted as a great favour a forty days' Indulgence for the anniversary.
Thirteen of Cicero's speeches were found by him at Cluny and Langres, and elsewhere in France or Germany; the commentary of Asconius, a complete Quintilian, and a large part of Valerius Flaccus were discovered at St Gallen.
With the foundation of the order of Cluny in the 10th century there appeared the conventual prior who ruled as head of a monastery, but was subject in some degree to the archiabbas of the mother-house of Cluny.
One of the earliest of these reformed orders was the Cluniac. This order took its name from the little village of Cluny, 12 miles N.W.
The fame of Cluny spread far and wide.
By the end of the 12th century the number of monasteries affiliated to Cluny in the various countries of western Europe amounted to 2000.
The monastic establishment of Cluny was one of the most extensive and magnificent in France.
- Abbey of Cluny, from Viollet-le-Duc.
In 996 the young king went to Italy to receive the imperial crown; and from this date Adelaide ceased to concern herself with worldly affairs, but devoted herself to pious exercises, to intimate correspondence with the abbots Majolus and Odilo of Cluny, and the foundation of churches and religious houses.
P. 585)ï¿½ From Cluny the custom spread to the other houses of the Cluniac order, was soon adopted in several dioceses in France, and spread thence throughout the Western Church.
Adalberon wrote a satirical poem in the form of a dialogue dedicated to Robert, king of France, in which he showed his dislike of Odilo, abbot of Cluny, and his followers, and his objection to persons of humble birth being made bishops.
Towards the end of July he took refuge in the cave of Coiraghoth in the Braes of Glenmoriston, and in August he joined Lochiel and Cluny Macpherson, with whom he remained in hiding until the news was brought that two French ships were in waiting for him at the place of his first arrival in Scotland - Lochnanuagh.
The first order was that of Cluny, founded in 910; in rule and manner of life it continued purely Benedictine, and it wielded extraordinary power and religious influence up to the middle of the 12th century.
But for a century (1125-1225) Citeaux supplanted Cluny as the spiritual centre of western Europe.
This is a curious anticipation of the highly organized and centralized forms of government in religious orders, not met with again till Cluny, Citeaux, and the Mendicant orders in the later middle ages.
He was educated at Cluny, and consistently exerted himself for the principles of Cluniac reform.
He left his cloister on several occasions, and speaks of having visited Croyland, Worcester, Cambrai (I105) and Cluny (1132).
A part of the work of christianizing the Spain of the 13th century, and not the least part, was done by the monks of Cluny introduced by the French wife of Alphonso VI.
Constance favored the monks of Cluny, and obtained her husbands favor for them.
In the 10th century, partly under the influence of the wealthy and splendour-loving community of Cluny, the use of the cope became very widespread; in the 11 th century it was universally worn, though the rules for its ritual use had not yet been fixed.
In especial the great monastic revival which had started from the abbey of Cluny and spread all over France, Italy and Germany had hardly touched this island.
By the rule of St Benedict, which, until the reform of Cluny, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community.
Popes and sovereigns gradually encroached on the rights of the monks, until in Italy the pope had usurped the nomination of all abbots, and the king in France, with the exception of Cluny, Premontre and other houses, chiefs of their order.
The abbots of Cluny and Vendome were, by virtue of their office, cardinals of the Roman church.
ALGER OF LIEGE (d c. 1131), known also as ALGER OF CLUNY and ALGERUS MAGISTER, a learned French priest who lived in the first half of the 12th century.
He declined many offers from German bishops and finally retired to the monastery of Cluny, where he died about 1131 at a great age and leaving a good reputation for piety and intelligence.
De Sacramentis Corporis et Sanguinis Domini; a treatise, in three books, against the Berengarian heresy, highly commended by Peter of Cluny and Erasmus.