Commercial and technical instruction is given in various institutions comprising national establishments such as the icoles nalionales professionnelles of Armentires, Vierzon, Voiron and Nantes for the education of working men; the more advanced coles darts et mtiers of Chlons, Angers, Aix, Lille and Cluny; and the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris; schools depending on the communes and state in combination, e.g.
In February 1119 he was chosen pope at Cluny in succession to Gelasius II., and in opposition to the anti-pope Gregory VIII., who was in Rome.
Adjoining the town on the south-east is the beautifully-wooded Cluny Hill, a favourite public resort, carrying on its summit the tower, 70 ft.
So late as the 10th and even the 11th centuries we find the law of the Burgundians invoked as personal law in Cluny charters, but doubtless these passages refer to accretions of local customs rather than to actual paragraphs of the ancient code.
In November 1245 he visited the abbey of Cluny and was presented by the abbot with gifts, the value of which surprised even the papal officials.
They are now in the Cluny Museum at Paris, having been purchased for £40oo, the intrinsic value of the gold, without reckoning that of the jewels and precious stones, being not less than £600.
He occupies a high place as a hymnologist, but principally as a translator of ancient and medieval hymns, the best known being probably "Brief life is here our portion," "To thee, 0 dear, dear country," and "Jerusalem, the golden," which are included in the poem of Bernard of Cluny, De Contemptu Mundi, translated by him in full.
And Benedict of Aniane's ideas of organization found embodiment a century later in the order of Cluny (910), which for a time overshadowed the great body of mere Benedictines (see Cluny).
Here it will suffice to say that the most distinctive features of the Cluny system were (1) a notable increase and prolongation of the church services, which came to take up the greater part of the working day; (2) a strongly centralized government, whereby the houses of the order in their hundreds were strictly subject to the abbot of Cluny.
Though forming a distinct and separate organism Cluny claimed to be, and was recognized as, a body of Benedictine houses; but from that time onwards arose a number of independent bodies, or "orders," which took the Benedictine Rule as the basis of their life.
These various orders were also organized and governed according to the system of centralized authority devised by St Pachomius (see Monasticism) and brought into vogue by Cluny in the West.
But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
It enlisted the immediate support of the regular clergy, particularly the vigorous congregation of Cluny, and of William V.
Like the pax ecclesiae it found ardent champions in the regular clergy, especially in Odilo (962-1049), the fifth abbot of Cluny, and soon spread over all France.
Setting out shortly after Christmas, he had a meeting with abbot Hugo of Cluny at Besancon, where he was joined by the young monk Hildebrand, who afterwards became Pope Gregory VII.; arriving in pilgrim garb at Rome in the following February, he was received with much cordiality, and at his consecration assumed the name of Leo IX.
The British Museum and the Musee Cluny in Paris have fine collections of them, mainly dredged from the Thames and the Seine.
A large number of the reformed monasteries attached themselves to the congregation of Cluny, thus assuring the influence of reformed monasticism upon the Church, and securing likewise its independence of the diocesan bishops, since the abbot of Cluny was subordinate of the pope alone.
(See Cluny; Benedictines and Monasticism.) At the same time that Cluny began to grow into importance, other centres of the monastic reform movement were established in Upper and Lower Lorraine; and before long the activity of the Cluniac monks made itself felt in Italy.
Innocent II., dedicating the great church of Cluny in 1132, granted as a great favour a forty days' Indulgence for the anniversary.
Thirteen of Cicero's speeches were found by him at Cluny and Langres, and elsewhere in France or Germany; the commentary of Asconius, a complete Quintilian, and a large part of Valerius Flaccus were discovered at St Gallen.
With the foundation of the order of Cluny in the 10th century there appeared the conventual prior who ruled as head of a monastery, but was subject in some degree to the archiabbas of the mother-house of Cluny.
One of the earliest of these reformed orders was the Cluniac. This order took its name from the little village of Cluny, 12 miles N.W.
The fame of Cluny spread far and wide.
By the end of the 12th century the number of monasteries affiliated to Cluny in the various countries of western Europe amounted to 2000.
The monastic establishment of Cluny was one of the most extensive and magnificent in France.
- Abbey of Cluny, from Viollet-le-Duc.
In 996 the young king went to Italy to receive the imperial crown; and from this date Adelaide ceased to concern herself with worldly affairs, but devoted herself to pious exercises, to intimate correspondence with the abbots Majolus and Odilo of Cluny, and the foundation of churches and religious houses.
The practice oflsetting apart a special day for intercession for certain of the faithful departed is of great antiquity; but the establishment of a feast of general intercession was in the first instance due to Odilo, abbot of Cluny (d.
From him he learned that amid the rocks was a chasm communicating with purgatory, from which rose perpetually the groans of tortured souls, the hermit asserting that he had also heard the demons complaining of the efficacy of the prayers of the faithful, and especially of the monks of Cluny, in rescuing their victims. On returning home the pilgrim hastened to inform the abbot of Cluny, who forthwith set apart the 2nd of November as a day of intercession on the part of his community for all the souls in purgatory.
P. 585)ï¿½ From Cluny the custom spread to the other houses of the Cluniac order, was soon adopted in several dioceses in France, and spread thence throughout the Western Church.
Adalberon wrote a satirical poem in the form of a dialogue dedicated to Robert, king of France, in which he showed his dislike of Odilo, abbot of Cluny, and his followers, and his objection to persons of humble birth being made bishops.
Towards the end of July he took refuge in the cave of Coiraghoth in the Braes of Glenmoriston, and in August he joined Lochiel and Cluny Macpherson, with whom he remained in hiding until the news was brought that two French ships were in waiting for him at the place of his first arrival in Scotland - Lochnanuagh.
The first order was that of Cluny, founded in 910; in rule and manner of life it continued purely Benedictine, and it wielded extraordinary power and religious influence up to the middle of the 12th century.
(See Cluny.) The chief offshoot from the Benedictine institute were the Cistercians (c. Ioo); their ground idea was a return to the letter of St Benedict's rule, and a reproduction, as close as could be, of the exterior conditions of life as they existed in St Benedict's own monastery; consequently field work held a prominent place in the Cistercian ideal.
But for a century (1125-1225) Citeaux supplanted Cluny as the spiritual centre of western Europe.
This is a curious anticipation of the highly organized and centralized forms of government in religious orders, not met with again till Cluny, Citeaux, and the Mendicant orders in the later middle ages.
He was educated at Cluny, and consistently exerted himself for the principles of Cluniac reform.
Henry, a man of deep, sincere and even rigorous piety, regarded these evils with sorrow; he associated himself definitely with the movement for reform which proceeded from Cluny, and commanded his prelates to put an end to simony and other abuses.
The retreat was admirably conducted; Lord George and Cluny fought a gallant and successful rear guard at Clifton; they escaped from Cumberland across the border, but Charles, against advice, left a doomed garrison in Carlisle.
A very remarkable set of specimens of goldsmith's work of the 7th century are the eleven votive crowns, two crosses and other objects found in 1858 at Guarrazar, and now preserved at Madrid and in Paris in the Cluny Museum (see Du Sommerard, Musa de Cluny, 1852).
Denis, and L'Art du moyen age (various dates); Karch, Die Rdthselbilder an der Broncethiire zu Augsburg (1869); Krug, Entwiirfe fiir Gold-, Silber-, and Bronze-Arbeiten; Linas, Orfevrerie merovingienne (1864), and Orfevrerie du XIII me siecle (1856); Bordeaux, Serrurerie du moyen age (1858); Didron, Manuel des oeuvres de bronze et d'orfevrerie du moyen age (1859); Du Sommerard, Arts au moyen age (1838-1846), and Musee de Cluny (1852); Rico y Sinobas, Trabajos de metales (1871); Bock, Die Goldschmiedekunst des Mittelalters (1855), and Kleinodien des heil.-romischen Reiches; Jouy, Les gemmes et les joyaux (1865); Texier, Dictionnaire d'orfevrerie (1857); Virgil Solis, Designs for Goldand Silversmiths (1512), (facsimile reproduction, 1862); Molinier, Les Bronzes de la Renaissance (1886); Servant, Les bronzes d'art (1880); Wilhelm Bode, Italian Bronze Statuettes of the Renaissance (Eng.
Cluny in the Grand Port (south-eastern) district has a mean annual rainfall of 145 in.; Albion on the west coast is the driest station, with a mean annual rainfall of 31 in.
Containing " Letters of Cicero," but those to Atticus are only mentioned once, in the catalogue of Cluny written in the 12th century.
492 in the old Cluny catalogue, used by Turnebus, Lambinus and Bosius.
387.5 It originally belonged to Cluny, being No.
The monks of Cluny were at work.
In France, too, judging both from existing specimens of ecclesiastical plate and many records preserved in church inventories, this mode of decoration must have been frequently applied all through the middle ages: especially fine examples once existed at Notre Dame, Paris, and at Cluny, where the columns of the sanctuary were covered with plates of silver in the 11th century, each plate being richly ornamented with designs in niello.
HENRY OF LAUSANNE (variously known as of Bruys, of Cluny, of Toulouse, and as the Deacon), French heresiarch of the first half of the 12th century.
Towards 1139, however, Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, wrote a treatise called Epistola seu tractatus adversus Petrobrusianos (Migne, Patr.
Daguerre for the invention of photography, the grant for the publication of the works of P. Fermat and Laplace, the acquisition of the museum of Cluny, the development of railways and electric telegraphs, the improvement of the navigation of the Seine, and the boring of the artesian wells at Grenelle.