The organizing genius of Dupleix everywhere overshadowed the native imagination, and the star of Clive had scarcely yet risen above the horizon.
When the relieving force arrived from Madras under Colonel Clive and Admiral Watson, Hastings enrolled himself as a volunteer, and took part in the action which led to the recovery of Calcutta.
Clive showed his appreciation of Hastings's merits by appointing him in 1758 to the important post of resident at the court of Murshidabad.
In 1761 he was promoted to be member of council, under the presidency of Mr Vansittart, who had been introduced by Clive from.
The great influence of Lord Clive was also exercised on his behalf.
The Mahrattas at this time had got possession of the person of the Mogul emperor, Shah Alam, from whom Clive obtained the grant of Bengal in 1765, and to whom he assigned in return the districts of Allahabad and Kora and a tribute of 30o,000.
Service of the East India company and sailed for Fort St David; here he showed himself very industrious, made the acquaintance of Robert Clive and rose rapidly from one position to another.
Clive selected it, on account of its commanding position, as the cantonment for the brigade of troops lent him by the nawab of Oudh.
Clive was appointed its governor in 1756; in 1758 the French captured it, but abandoned it two years later to Sir Eyre Coote.
To the south is Claremont Palace, built by the great Lord Clive (1769) on the site of a mansion of Sir John Vanbrugh.
Garrick was surrounded by many players of eminence, and he had the art, as he was told by Mrs Clive, " of contradicting the proverb that one cannot make bricks without straw, by doing what is infinitely more difficult, making actors and actresses without genius."
(See, inter alia, Garrick's Vagary, or England Run Mad; with particulars of the Stratford Jubilee, 1769.) Of his best supporters on the stage, Mrs Cibber, with whom he had been reconciled, died in 1766, and Mrs (Kitty) Clive retired in 1769; but Garrick contrived to maintain the success of his theatre.
Simple and honourable himself, he was shrewd and penetrating in his judgment of Orientals; and, unlike his great predecessor Clive, he rigidly adhered to the rule of good faith in his own actions, however depraved and however exasperating the conduct of those with whom he had to deal.
In the opinion of the people he was now regarded as the embodiment of all legal virtue; his health was toasted at the dinners of the Whigs amid rounds of applause, and, in recompense for the loss of his seat in parliament, he was returned by Lord Clive for his pocket-borough of Bishop's Castle, in Shropshire, in January 1770.
Among the latter were (besides histories of the campaigns in which he served), Life of Sir Thomas Munro (3 vols., 1830); History of India (4 vols., 1830-1835); The Leipsic Campaign and Lives of Military Commanders (1831); Story of the Battle of Waterloo (1847); Sketch of the Military History of Great Britain (1845); Sale's Brigade in Afghanistan (1847); biographies of Lord Clive (1848), the duke of Wellington (1862), and Warren Hastings (1848; the subject of Macaulay's essay, in which it is described as "three big bad volumes full of undigested correspondence and undiscerning panegyric").
They were to be supported by five bombarding monitors ("Marshal Soult," "Lord Clive," "Prince Eugene," "General Crawford," M24 and M26) and covered by five British destroyers ("Swift," "Faulknor," "Matchless," "Mastiff" and "Afridi"), with three British destroyers and six French torpedo boats attending on the monitors ("Mentor," "Lightfoot," "Zubian," "Lestin," "Capitaine Mehl," "Francis Gamier," "Roux," "Bouclier").
In order to divert the attention of Chanda Sahib and his French auxiliaries from the siege of Trichinopoly, Clive suggested an attack upon Arcot and offered to command the expedition.
The place, however, was abandoned without a struggle and Clive took possession of the fortress.
It was taken by the French in 1751, and was retaken in 1752 by Clive, after which it proved invaluable to the British, especially when Lally in his advance on Madras left it unreduced in his rear.
The knell of Dutch supremacy was sounded by Clive, when in 1758 he attacked the Dutch at Chinsura both by land and water, and forced them to an ignominious capitulation.
Madras surrendered almost without a blow, and the only settlement left to the British was Fort St David, a few miles south of Pondicherry, where Clive and a few other fugitives sought shelter.
The one incident that stands out conspicuously is the capture and subsequent defence of Arcot by Clive in 1751.
Shortly afterwards Clive returned to England in ill-health, but the war continued fitfully for many years.
Meanwhile the interest of history shifts with Clive to Bengal.
The news of this disaster fortunately found Clive returned to Madras, where also was a squadron of king's ships under Admiral Watson.
Clive and Watson promptly sailed Battle of to the mouth of the Ganges with all the troops that Plassey.
War had just been declared between the British and French in Europe, and Clive, following the traditions of his early warfare in the Carnatic, attacked and captured Chandernagore.
But Clive, again acting upon the policy he had learned from Dupleix, had provided himself with a rival candidate to the throne.
Clive, again following in the steps of Dupleix, placed his nominee, Mir Jafar, upon the masnad at Murshidabad, being careful to obtain a patent of investiture from the Mogul court.
The members of the council received the following amounts: Mr Drake, the governor, and Colonel Clive 280,000 rupees each; and Mr Becher, Mr Watts and Major Kilpatrick 240,000 rupees each.
The superior lordship, or right to receive the quit rent, remained with the nawab; but in 1759 this also was parted with by the nawab in favour of Clive, who thus became the landlord of his own masters, the company.
At that time also Clive was enrolled among the nobility of the Mogul empire, with the rank of commander of 6000 foot and 5000 horse.
In 1758 Clive was appointed by the court of directors to be governor of all the company's settlements in Bengal.
From two quarters troubles threatened, which perhaps Clive alone was capable of overcoming.
But the name of Clive exercised a decisive effect in both directions.
But Clive in person marched to the rescue, with an army of only 450 Europeans and 2500 sepoys, and the Mogul army dispersed without striking a blow.
From 1760 to 1765, while Clive was at home, the history of the British in Bengal contains little that is creditable.
Clive had left behind him no system of government, but merely the tradition that unlimited sums of money Massacre y y of Patna.
But in 1765 Clive (now Baron Clive of as governor of Bengal for the second time, to settle the entire system of relations with the native powers.
But the beginning of the British administration of India dates from this second governorship of Clive, just as the origin of the British empire in India dates from his victory at Plassey.
In attempting to reorganize and purify the company's service, Clive undertook a task yet more difficult than to partition the valley of the Ganges.
Despite the united resistance of the civil servants, and an actual mutiny of two hundred military officers, Clive carried through his reforms. Both private trade and the receipt of presents were absolutely prohibited for the future, while a substantial increase of pay was provided out of the monopoly of salt.
Lord Clive quitted India for the third and last time in 1767.
The dual system of government, however, established by Clive, had proved a failure.
It was Warren Hastings's merit to organize the empire which Clive founded.
Ever since the nawab wazir, Shuja-ud-Dowlah, received back his forfeited territories from the hands of Lord Clive in 1765, the very existence of Oudh as an independent state had depended only upon the protection of British bayonets.
A posthumous work, Life of Robert, Lord Clive, appeared in 1836.
In 1765, after the battle of Buxar, when the nawab of Oudh had been decisively defeated and Shah Alam, the Mogul emperor, was a suppliant in the British camp, Lord Clive was content to claim no acquisition of territory.
In 1765 Lord Clive obtained from the Mogul emperor Shah Alam a grant of the five Circars.
Calcutta was retaken by Clive and Admiral Watson on the 2nd of January 1757, and on the 23rd of June, Suraj-ud-Dowlah, routed at Plassey, fled to Rajmahal, where he was captured.