The plants are admirably adapted for climates in which a season favourable to growth alternates with a hot or dry season;.
The buds of trees of temperate climates, which lie dormant during the winter, are protected by scale leaves.
All climates agree with brave Chanticleer.
Amongst his contemporaries were Istakhri, who travelled through all the Mahommedan countries and wrote his Book of Climates in 950, and Ibn Haukal, whose Book of Roads and Kingdoms, based on the work of Istakhri, was written in 976.
By far the most destructive insects in warm climates belong to the Hemiptera, especially to the Coccidae or scale insects.
Woyeikoff, Climates of the Earth (1884); Mongolia and Kham (Imperial Russian Geographical Society's Expedition, 1899-1901).
The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
In most temperate climates, artificial heating is necessary, at least occasionally, in many cases, but the tendency has been to be more sedulous of warmth than of ventilation.
In the sierras, above the tierras frias, which are not " cold lands " at all, are the colder climates of the temperate zone, suitable for cereals, grazing and forest industries, and, farther up, the isolated peaks which rise into the regions of snow and ice.
The Stomoxys calcitrans, or stable-fly; Pollenia rudis, or cluster-fly; Muscina stabulans, another stablefly; Calliphora erythrocephala, blue-bottle fly, blow-fly or meatfly, with smaller sorts of blue-bottle, Phormia terraenovae and Lucilia Caesar; Homalomyia canicularis and brevis, the small house-fly; Scenopinus fenestralis, the black window-fly, &c. But Musca domestica is far the most numerous, and in many places, especially in hot weather and in hot climates, is a regular pest.
The advantage of the high conducting power which copper possesses Over- is of especial value in moist climates (like that of the United Kingdom), since the effect of leakage over the surface of the damp insulators is much less noticeable when the conducting power of the wire is high than when it is low, especially when the line is a long one.
Climate.-Uruguay enjoys the reputation of possessing one of the most healthy climates in the world The geographical position ensures uniformity of temperature throughout the year, the summer heat being tempered by the Atlantic breezes, and severe cold in the winter season being unknown.
The arboreous forms which least require the humid and equable heat of the more truly tropical and equatorial climates, and are best able to resist the high temperatures and excessive drought of the northern Indian hot months from April to June, are certain Leguminosae, Bauhinia, Acacia, Butea and Dalbergia, Bombax, Shorea, Nauclea, Lagerstroemia, and Bignonia, a few bamboos and palms, with others which extend far beyond the tropic, and give a tropical aspect to the forest to the extreme northern border of the Indian plain.
In all climates fruit and forest trees suffer from weevils or Curculionidae.
The range of temperature is not sufficient to give the variety of annual wild flowers of more northern climates; nevertheless flowers cover the bottom lands and uplands in great profusion.
Apples, peaches, quinces, raspberries, strawberries, &c., are produced under such conditions, but the flavour of their kind grown in colder climates is usually wanting.
Convolvulus has about tso to 200 species, mainly in temperate climates; the genus is principally developed in the Mediterranean area and western Asia.
The simplest of all coverings is the loin-cloth characteristic of warm climates, and a necessary protection where there are trying extremes of temperature.
There can be no doubt that it was in the main Greek medicine, modified to suit other climates, habits and national tastes, and with some important additions from Oriental sources.
The comparison of observations in various climates and peoples has had some weight; while in the better knowledge of their causes their treatment has found permanent advantage.
In cold climates men coming from the warm atmosphere of a mine, often in wet clothing, are liable to suffer in health unless proper provision is made for the necessary change of clothing.
Though cultivated in sub-tropical countries such as Natal and the Southern states of the Union, it is essentially tropical in its requirements and succeeds best in warm damp climates such as Cuba, British Guiana and Hawaii, and in India and Java in the Old World.
In tropical climates with a well-marked dry season mosquitoes pass into a semi-dormant condition during the period when there is little water in which to deposit their eggs.
The skins from northern regions are more full and of a finer colour and gloss than those from more temperate climates, as are those of animals killed in winter compared to the same individuals in summer.
Izerbacea and arctic species generally, to 1 oo ft., and occurring most abundantly in cold or temperate climates in both hemispheres, and generally in moist situations; a few species occur in the tropical and sub-tropical portions of the three great continents.
The bear family is widely distributed, being found in every quarter of the globe except Australia, and in all climates, from the highest northern latitudes yet reached by man to the warm regions of India and Malaya.
As already intimated, our knowledge of palaeometeorology, or of past climates, is derivable chiefly from fossils.
In the trunk of the larch, especially when growing in climates where the sun is powerful in summer, a fine clear turpentine exists in great abundance; in Savoy and the south of Switzerland, it is collected for sale, though not in such quantity as formerly, when, being taken to Venice for shipment, it was known in commerce as " Venice turpentine."
Its great elevation causes the climate to be rather arctic than tropical, so that there is no gradual blending of the climates and physical conditions of India and Tibet, such as would tend to promote intercourse between the inhabitants of these neighbouring regions; on the contrary, there are sharp lines of demarcation, in a mountain barrier which is scalable at only a few points, and in the social aspects and conditions of life on either side.
But in many parts deep transverse valleys intersect the prevailing direction of the ridges, and facilitate the passage of man, plants and animals, as well as of currents of air which mitigate the contrast that would otherwise be found between the climates of the opposite slopes.
The accumulation of vast masses of snow, which have gradually been converted into permanent glaciers, maintains a gradation of very different climates within the narrow space that intervenes between the foot of the mountains and their upper ridges; it cools the breezes that are wafted to the plains on either side, but its most important function is to regulate the water-supply of that large region which is traversed by the streams of the Alps.
Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, set forth ',in' Zoonomia a much more definite theory of the relation of variation to evolution, and the following passage, cited by Clodd, clearly expresses it: "When we revolve in our minds the metamorphoses of animals, as from the tadpole to the frog; secondly, the changes produced by artificial cultivation, as in the breeds of horses, dogs and sheep; thirdly, the changes produced by conditions of climate and season, as in the sheep of warm climates being covered with hair instead of wool, and the hares and partridges of northern climates becoming white in winter; when, further, we observe the changes of structure produced by habit, as shewn especially by men of different occupations; or the changes produced by artificial mutilation and prenatal influences, as in the crossing of species and production of monsters; fourth, when we observe the essential unity of plan in all warmblooded animals - we are led to conclude that they have been alike produced from a single living filament."
The mountainous regions are mostly massed in the west and lie generally north and south, or approximately facing the rain-bringing winds from the Atlantic. Thus the climates of the west are essentially wet.
On the other hand, the climates of the east are dry, because the surface is lower and more level; and the breezes borne thither from the west, being robbed of most of their superabundant moisture in crossing the western hills, are drier and precipitate a greatly diminished rainfall.
It thus happens that the driest climates in the east are those which have to south-westwards the broadest extent of mountainous ground, and that the wettest eastern climates are those which are least protected by high lands on the west.
The breakdown of the watershed between the Firths of Clyde and Forth exposes southern Perthshire, the counties of Clackmannan and Kinross, and nearly the whole of Fife to the clouds and rains of the west, and their climates are consequently wetter than those of any others of the eastern slopes of the country.
The driest climates of the east are in Tweeddale about Kelso and Jedburgh, the low grounds of East Lothian, and those on the Moray Firth from Elgin round to Dornoch.
Climala.The climate of Germany is to be regarded as intermediate between the oceanic and continental climates of western and eastern Europe respectively.
Where water is used, as in dry and hot countries, simply as water, less is generally needed than in cold, damp and northerly climates, where the higher temperature and the action of the water as manure are of more consequence.
In plants of warm climates the buds have often no protective appendages, and are then said to be naked.
Most of the trees of Great Britain have deciduous leaves, their duration not extending over more than a few months, while in trees of warm climates the leaves often remain for two or more years.
The cause of the fall of the leaf in cold climates seems to be deficiency of light and heat in winter, which causes a cessation in the functions of the cells of the leaf.