The spirit of indiscipline had begun to reach the lower classes of state employees, especially the school teachers and the postal and telegraph clerks, and at one time it seemed as though the country were about to face a situation similar to that which arose in France in the spring of 1909.
It came, however, to be the practice to impose some restrictions, as on clerks twice married.
For while at New College only twenty out of seventy fellows were to study law instead of arts, philosophy and theology, at All Souls College sixteen were to be " jurists " and only twenty-four " artists "; and while at New College there were ten chaplains and three clerks necessarily, at All Souls the number was not defined but left optional; so that there are now only one chaplain and four bible clerks.
Having the moderator and clerks from the assembly of 1837, they retained the books and papers.
The coles pratiques de commerce et dindustrie for the training of clerks and workmen; private schools controlled by the state, such as the coles supirieures de commerce; certain municipal schools, such as the Industrial Institute of Lille; and private establishments, e.g.
But jurisdiction which was not necessarily incident to the office of the official principal, that is to say voluntary jurisdiction, such as the granting of licences and institution to benefices, and criminal jurisdiction over clerks (and probably over laymen), the bishop could reserve to himself.
In regard to " clerks," there was (1) all the criminal jurisdiction which existed over laymen, and (2) criminal jurisdiction in regard to professional misconduct.
Concerning " felonious " clerks the great questions discussed were whether the courts Christian had exclusive jurisdiction or the king's court, or whether there was a concurrent jurisdiction.
Forbade spiritual courts to take cognizance of " real " and "possessory " actions even in regard to clerks (Migne, loc. cit.; cf.
The only other remaining civil jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts was in personal actions where clerks were defendants (Migne, op. cit., s.v.
Clerks were punishable only in the court Christian, except in cases of grave crimes such as murder, mutilation (Fournier, p. 72), and cases called " royal cases " (vide infra).
C. r 1 made special provision for convicted clerks who broke out of the prisons of the ordinary.
C. 85) gave criminal jurisdiction over beneficed clerks (concurrent with ' that of the tribunal under 3 & 4 Vict.
But it only applies to clerks holding preferment.
(3) Control of lay office-bearers, churchwardens, sidesmen, organists, parish clerks, sextons.
In some " missionary" dioceses, the metropolitan, qua metropolitan, has a separate commission of investigation, to try the criminal causes of clerks, sentence being passed by himself of his vicar-general (ib.
Clerks and the dependants of the metropolitan (afterwards the patriarch) appear to have been immune from secular jurisdiction, except in the case of crimes against life, from the time of Ivan the Terrible (ib.
There remain to the spiritual courts in Russia the purely ecclesiastical discipline of clerks and laity and matrimonial causes.
Clericatus), a collective term signifying in English strictly the body of "clerks," i.e.
Strict application to technical "clerks," and to widen it out so as to embrace all varieties of ordained Christian ministers.
Other elective officers are the mayor, city treasurer, city sergeant, commonwealth attorney, city collector, city auditor, sheriff and high constable, elected for four years; and clerks of the various courts elected for eight years.
From very early days executive officers known as " select-men," constables, clerks of markets, hog reeves, packers of meat and fish, &c., were chosen; and the select-men, particularly, gained power as the attendance of the freemen on meetings grew onerous.
On the most burning question, that of criminous clerks, he offered a compromise.
But his whole official career was a constant struggle with narrow routine and personal jealousy on the part of the boyars and clerks of the council.
Those who were not inmates of the household, but were employed outside of it as keepers of a shop or boat, chiefs of workshops, or clerks in a mercantile business, had the advantage of greater freedom of action.
The agents of the finance ministry, instead of being mere clerks, are now employed in " the assessment and collection of taxes, the control of expenditure, the preparation and execution of the budget, the estimates of the necessary cash required at different points of the empire - all that, in fine, constitutes the real financial administration of a great empire."
Nor is it possible to mention here all the intrigues and quarrels that arose during three and a half years among the crowd of prelates, monks, doctors, simple clerks, princes and ambassadors composing this tumultuous assembly - perhaps the greatest congress of people the world has ever seen.
In the preface it is stated that Howel, "seeing the laws and customs of the country violated with impunity, summoned the archbishop of Menevia, other bishops and the chief of the clergy, the nobles of Wales, and six persons (four laymen and two clerks) from each comot, to meet at a place called Y Ty Gwyn ar Da y, or the white house on the river Tav, repaired thither in person, selected from the whole assembly twelve of the most experienced persons, added to their number a clerk or doctor of laws, named Bllgywryd, and to these thirteen confided the task of examining, retaining, expounding and abrogating.
He was one of the clerks at the Westminster Assembly, one of Cromwell's chaplains and a "trier," and held livings at Stoke Newington (1645) and St Paul's, Covent Garden (1656).
The Company of Parish Clerks is named in an ordinance of 1581 (of which there is a copy in the Record Office) as the body responsible for the bills, and their duties were then said to be " according to the Order in that behalf heretofore provided."
The fire of 1666 destroyed all the documents of the Parish Clerks Company, and in its hall in Silver Street only printed tables from about the year 1700 are to be found.
Hubert was accused, with some reason, of enriching himself at the expense of the crown, and of encouraging popular riots against the alien clerks for whom the papacy was providing at the expense of the English Church.
The county officers are sheriffs, coroners, prothonotaries, registers of wills, recorders of deeds, commissioners, treasurers, surveyors, auditors or comptrollers, clerks of the courts, and district attorneys, elected for three years.
He denied the power of clerks to possess fiefs, and allowed them only religious authority and tithes.
The Romans sacked and destroyed the houses of the clerks and cardinals, besieged St Peter's and the Lateran, and massacred the pilgrims. The pope was forced to fly with the Sacred College, to escape the necessity of recognizing the commune, and thus left the field free to Arnold of Brescia (1145).
In the registers of these popes, which are now being actively investigated and published, dispensations (licences to violate the laws of the Church); indulgences; imposts levied with increasing regularity on universal Christendom and, in particular, on the clerks; the settlement of questions relating to church debts; the granting of lucrative benefices to Roman functionaries; the divers processes by which the Curia acquired the immediate disposal of monastic, capitulary and episcopal revenues - in short, all financial matters are of the first importance.
These tools of Rome, both clerks and laymen, continued to increase in every diocese.
The expenses connected with elections, such as the renting and preparing of the polling-places, the payment of the clerks and other officers who conduct the elections and count the vote, are borne by the community.
One of the most noteworthy schools of the city is the Lycen de Artes e Officios, located on Rua 13 de Maio, opposite the operahouse; it dates from 1858 and has been the means of giving instruction to a multitude of clerks, artisans and others, through its night classes.
In the third group women greatly preponderate in the occupation of stenographers and type-writers; and in those of book-keepers and accountants, clerks and copyists, packers and shippers, saleswomen (which is the largest class), and telegraph and telephone operators they have a large representation (13 to 34 ~ A great Variation exists in the proportion of the sexes employed in different manufacturing industries.
The governor and council appoint all judicial ' The constitution of 1776 provided that the Congress which framed it " assume the name, power and authority of a House of Representatives "; that said house choose twelve persons to be " a distinct and separate branch of the legislature by the name of a Council that the Council appoint a president; that civil officers for the colony and for each county (except clerks of court, county treasurers and recorders) should be appointed by the two houses; and that " if the present unhappy dispute with Great Britain should continue longer than this present year, and the Continental Congress give no instruction or direction to the contrary, the Council be chosen by the people of each respective county in such manner as the Council and House of Representatives shall order."
In France, even after their expulsion in 1765, they had maintained a precarious footing in the country under the partial disguise and names of "Fathers of the Faith" or "Clerks of the Sacred Heart," but were obliged by Napoleon I.