Cleanthes is said to have held that all survive to the great conflagration which closes the cycle, Chrysippus that only the wise will.
Like the earlier Stoics, Cleanthes and Chrysippus, he held that virtue may be taught.
On this account he was accused of impiety by the Stoic Cleanthes, just as Galileo, in later years, was attacked by the theologians.
The grammar of the Stoics, gradually elaborated by Zeno, Cleanthes and Chrysippus, supplied a terminology which, in words such as " genitive," " accusative " and " aorist," has become a permanent part of the grammarian's vocabulary; and the study of this grammar found its earliest home in Pergamum.
He took the doctrines of Zeno and Cleanthes and crystallized them into a definite system; he further defended them against the attacks of the Academy.
His relations with Cleanthes, contemporaneously criticized by Antipater, are considered under Stoics.
Cleanthes) and his own precepts discredit the story, and he is known to have been much respected by the Athenians.
Apion speaks of the metoposcopists, who judge by the appearance of the face, and Cleanthes the Stoic says it is 5 Op. cit., xix.
The Dialogues introduce three interlocutors, Demea, Cleanthes and Philo, who represent three distinct orders of theological opinion.
Cleanthes, who maintains that the doctrine of the incomprehensibility of God is hardly distinguishable from atheism, is compelled by the arguments of Philo to reduce to a minimum the conclusion capable of being inferred from experience as regards the existence of God.
Cleanthes, pointing out that from a nature thoroughly evil we can never prove the existence of an infinitely powerful and benevolent Creator, hazards the conjecture that the deity, though all-benevolent, is not all-powerful.
There is, however, appended one of those perplexing statements of personal opinion (for Hume declares Cleanthes to be his mouthpiece) not uncommon among writers of this period.
Cleanthes and Philo come to an agreement, in admitting a certain illogical force in the a posteriori argument, or, at least, in expressing a conviction as to God's existence, which may not perhaps be altogether devoid of foundation.
The Stoic teaching is derived from Cleanthes, Chrysippus and Zeno, and is criticized from the writings of Carneades and Clitomachus.
Hardly a single Stoic of eminence was a citizen of any city in the heart of Greece, unless we make Aristo of Chios, Cleanthes of Assus and Panaetius of Rhodes exceptions.
Aristo of Chios and Herillus of Carthage, Zeno's heterodox pupils, Persaeus, his favourite disciple and housemate, the poet Aratus, and Sphaerus, the adviser of the Spartan king Cleomenes, are noteworthy minor names; but the chief interest centres about Zeno, Cleanthes, Chrysippus, who in succession built up the wondrous system.
What originality it had - at first sight it would seem not much - belongs to these thinkers; but the loss of all their works except the hymn of Cleanthes, and the inconsistencies in such scraps of information as can be gleaned from unintelligent witnesses, for the most part of many centuries later, have rendered it a peculiarly difficult task to distinguish with certainty the work of each of the three.
Elaboration on all sides of Stoic natural philosophy belongs to Cleanthes, who certainly was not the merely docile and receptive intelligence he is sometimes represented as being.
It was left for Cleanthes to discover this motive cause in a conception familiar to Zeno, as to the Cynics before him, but restricted to the region of ethics - the conception of tension or effort.
But we can answer authoritatively that to Cleanthes and Chrysippus, if not to Zeno, there was no real difference between matter and its cause, which is always a corporeal current, and therefore matter, although the finest and subtlest matter.
The primitive substance, be it remembered, is not Heraclitus's fire (though Cleanthes also called it flame of fire, 4X6) any more than it is the air or " breath " of Anaximenes or Diogenes of Apollonia.
Moreover, the commentaries of Cleanthes, Aristo and Sphaerus on Heraclitean writings (Diog.
Tension itself Cleanthes defined as a fiery stroke (ii yi irvpos); in his hymn to Zeus lightning is the symbol of divine activity.
On the other hand, this corporeal thing is veritably and identically reason, mind, and ruling principle (X6-yos, vas, iiyE,uovtKOv); in virtue of its divine origin Cleanthes can say to Zeus, " We too are thy offspring," and a Seneca can calmly insist that, if man and God are not on perfect equality, the superiority rests rather on our side.
It was a moot point whether all souls so survive, as Cleanthes thought, or the souls of the wise and good alone, which was the opinion of Chrysippus; in any case, sooner or later individual souls are merged in the soul of the universe, from which they proceeded.
That Zeno and Cleanthes crudely compared this presentation to the impression which a seal bears upon wax, with protuberances and indentations, while Chrysippus more prudently determined it vaguely as an occult modification or " mode " of mind, is an interesting but not intrinsically important detail But the mind is no mere passive recipient of impressions from without, in the view of the Stoics.
Cleanthes, the " second Hercules," held it possible for man to attain to virtue.
C. Pearson, The Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes (London 1891); A.