The history of Tournai dates from the time of Julius Caesar, when it was called civitas Nerviorum or castrum Turnacum.
Throughout the middle ages the sancta civitas Trevirorum abounded in religious foundations and was a great seat of monastic learning.
Chartres was one of the principal towns of the Carnutes, and by the Romans was called Autricum, from the river Autura (Eure), and afterwards civitas Carnutum.
During the last Punic War it gave assistance to the Romans; after the fall of Carthage in 146 it received an accession of territory and the title of civitas libera (Appian, Punica, xciv.; C.I.L.
The civitas Beneharnensium was included in the Novempopulania.
The towns of the ancient province of Africa which received coloniae were very numerous: Abitensis (civitas Avittensis Bibba), Bisica Lucana (Tastour), Byzacium, Capsa (Gafsa), Carthage, Cuina, Curubis (Kurba), Hadrumetum (Susa), Hippo Diarrhytus or Zarytus (Bizerta), Leptis Magna (Lebda), Maxula (Ghades, Rades or Gades),Neapolis(Nabel, Nebeul), Oea (Tripoli), Sabrata (Zoara), colonic Scillitana (Ghasrin), Sufes (Sbiba), Tacape (Gabes),Thaenae or Thenae (Tina), Thelepte (Medinet Kedima), Thugga (Dugga), Thuburbo maius (Kasbat), Thysdrus (El Jem), Uthina (Wadna) and Vallis (Median).
They are held in the public square, the curious and historic Piazza del Campo (now Piazza di Vittorio Emanuele) in shape resembling an ancient theatre, on the 2nd of July and the 16th of August of each year; they date from the middle ages and were instituted in commemoration of victories and in honour of the Virgin Mary (the old title of Siena, as shown by seals and medals, having been "Sena vetus civitas Virginis").
In recognition thereof the Genoese senate caused the words Civitas Calvi semper fidelis to be carved on the chief gate of the city, which still preserves the inscription.
In the 9th century Salernitan physicians were already spoken of, and the city was known as Civitas hippocratica.
At the entrance to London Bridge the towers were adorned with banners of the royal arms, and in the front of them was inscribed Civitas Regis Justicie.
In Roman Gaul this territory formed part of the diocese of Auch (civitas Ausciorum), which corresponded roughly with the later duchy of Gascony.
Passing over a doubtful mention of "Vwienni" in the annals of 1030, we find the "civitas" of Vienna mentioned in a document of 1130, and in 1156 it became the capital and residence of Duke Heinrich Jasomirgott.
At the close of the war, in 241 B.C., Messina became a free and allied city (civitas foederata), and obtained Roman citizenship before the rest of Sicily, probably from Caesar himself.
Under the Romans Dijon (Divonense castrum) was a vicus in the civitas of Langres.
In ancient Gaul it was the country of the Nitiobroges with Aginnum for its capital, and in the 4th century it was the Civitas Agennensium which was a part of Aquitania Secunda and which formed the diocese of Agen.
ANJOU, the old name of a French territory, the political origin of which is traced to the ancient Gallic state of the Andes, on the lines of which was organized, after the conquest by Julius Caesar, the Roman civitas of the Andecavi.
Nor do we know anything of its history between 334 (when it probably became a civitas sine suffragio under Roman domination, shortly afterwards receiving, in 318, a praefectus iure dicundo) and 215, when the Romans introduced a garrison of 6000 men to protect the town from Hannibal, who besieged it in vain for three days in 214.
It was already in the hands of the Romans in 306 B.C., and since in the 3rd century B.C. it issued copper coins with a Latin legend it must have had the civitas sine suffragio.
About 400 the Notitia Galliarum calls it a civitas (so that it then had a municipal administration of its own), and reckons it as first among those of the Viennese.
The ancient city of Fundi in 338 B.C. (or 332) received (with Formiae) the civitas sine suffragio, because it had always secured the Romans safe passage through its territory; the people as a whole did not join Privernum in its war against Rome three years later, though Vitruvius Vacca, the leader, was a native of Fundi.
Augustus and his successors adopted the practice of granting to existing towns in the provinces either the full citizenship, or a partial civitas known as the jus Latii.
This partial civitas does not seem to have been entirely replaced, as in Italy, by the grant of full privileges to the communities possessing it, and the distinction survived for some time in the provinces between coloniae, municipia juris Romani, and municipia juris Latini.
Diocletian added Helvetia, and part of Germania Superior to Sequania, which was now called Provincia maxima Sequanorum, Vesontio receiving the title of Metropolis civitas Vesontiensium.
2 "Mando et concedo et confirmo ut ista civitas cum sua plebe et cum omnibus suis pertinentiis sub tali lege et sub tali foro maneat per saecula cuncta.
The medical school of the Civitas Hippocratica (as it called itself on its seals) held a high position in medieval times.
Aricia was one of the oldest cities of Latium, and appears as a serious opponent of Rome at the end of the period of the kings and beginning of the republic. In 338 B.C. it was conquered by C. Maenius and became a civitas sine suffragio, but was soon given full rights.
Heldmann, Der Koingau and die Civitas Koln (Halle, 1900); L.
Their chief town was Vindinum or Suindinum (corrupted into Subdinnum), afterwards Civitas Cenomanorum (whence Le Mans), the original name of the town, as usual in the case of Gallic cities, being replaced by that of the people.
Under Augustus they formed a civitas stipendiaria of Gallia Lugdunensis, and in the 4th century part of Gallia Lugdunensis iii.
Its wish prevailed, and it passed with Syria to the Roman Republic in 64 B.C., but remained a civitas libera.
Brieg, or, as it is called in early documents, Civitas Altae Ripae, obtained municipal rights in 1250 from Duke Henry III.
Rietschel, Die Civitas auf deutschem Boden bis zum Auagange der Karolingerzeit (Leipzig, 1894); and, for the newly founded towns, the same author, Markt and Stadt in ihrem rechtlichen Verheiltnis (Leipzig, 1897).
Under Augustus, the Carnutes, as one of the peoples of Lugdunensis, were raised to the rank of civitas socia or foederata, retaining their own institutions, and only bound to render military service to the emperor.
Up to the 3rd century Autricum (later Carnutes, whence Chartres) was the capital, but in 275 Aurelian changed Cenabum from a vicus into a civitas and named it Aurelianum or Aurelianensis urbs (whence Orleans).
During the First Punic War it belonged to the kingdom of Hiero, and after his death it enjoyed an exceptionally favoured position with regard to Rome, being like Messana and Netum, a civitas foederata.
Thus civitas gave ciwed; columna gave colofn.
In Bacon's New Atlantis (1624-29) science is the key to universal happiness; Tommaso Campanella's Civitas Solis (1623) portrays a communistic society, and is largely inspired by the Republic of Plato; James Harrington's Oceana (1656), which had a profound influence upon political thought in America, is a practical treatise rather than a romance, and is founded on the ideas that property, especially in land, is the basis of political power, and that the executive should only be controlled for a short period by the same man or men.
In political philosophy (the Civitas Solis) he sketches an ideal communism, obviously derived from the Platonic, based on community of wives and property with statecontrol of population and universal military training.
(with Civitas Solis) (1623); Atheismus triumphatus (1631); Philos.
He also reduced the revolted Sabines to submission; a large portion of their territory was distributed among the Roman citizens, and the most important towns received the citizenship without the right of voting for magistrates (civitas sine sufJragio).
Till the 4th century Bayeux bore the name of Augustodurum, but afterwards, when it became the capital of the two tribes of the Baiocasses and Viducasses, took the name of Civitas Baiocassium.
Then over against this civitas terrena he sets the divine city which is to be realized in Christendom.
From that time Palaeopolis totally disappeared from history, and Neapolis became an allied city (foederata civitas) - a dependency of Rome, to whose alliance it remained constantly faithful, even in the most trying circumstances.
Auxerre (Autessiodurum) became the seat of a bishop and a civitas in the 3rd century.
In some of the tombs of these legionaries coins of Maxentius have been found, while the Liber Pontificalis records that Constantine gave to the church of Albano "omnia scheneca deserta vel domos intra urbem Albanensem," which has generally been taken to refer to the abandoned camp. It was at this period, then, that the civitas Albanensis arose.
As regards public law Pufendorf, while recognizing in the state (civitas) a moral person (persona moralis), teaches that the will of the state is but the sum of the individual wills that constitute it, and that this association explains the state.
Nomentum received the civitas sine suffragio after the last war of the Latins against Rome (338 B.C.); in its municipal constitution the chief magistrate even in imperial times bore the title of dictator.