Their arid country was the best safeguard of their cherished liberty; for the bottle-shaped cisterns for rain-water which they excavated in the rocky or argillaceous soil were carefully concealed from invaders.
Good water is everywhere so scarce that but for the rain preserved in cisterns the country would be mostly uninhabitable.
In several places the debris within the walls is saturated with sewage, and the water of the Fountain of the Virgin, and of many of the old cisterns, is unfit for drinking.
We learn from Oriental writers that one of the Buyid (Buwaihid) sultans in the 10th century of the Flight constructed the great cisterns, which may yet be seen, and have been visited, amongst others, by James Morier and E.
The ova of Culex, on the other hand, are deposited in any stagnant water, including cesspools, drains, cisterns, or water collected in any vessel; they float in boat-shaped masses on the surface.
These aguadQS were huge basins, paved and cemented, with underground cisterns, also lined with stone and cement, which may have been used for the protection of water against heat when the principal supply had become exhausted.
The existence of numerous ancient cisterns shows that in Roman as in modern times rain-water was largely used for lack of springs.
It contains several cisterns, excavated in the rock.
They consist of chambers of various sizes, some of which were evidently human habitations, together with cisterns, channels, seats, steps, terraces and quadrangular tombs, all cut in the rock.
2, Lobby and cisterns ablution.
Daux, discovered the jetties and the moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour (Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre, the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab cafe (Kahwat-el-Kubba).
Since all soluble lead compounds are strong cumulative poisons, danger is involved in using lead cisterns or pipes in the distribution of pure waters.
Lead cisterns must be unhesitatingly condemned.
They consist of tanks or cisterns fitted with " heads " from which a number of bags of specially woven cloth are suspended in a suitable manner, and into which the melted sugar or liquor to be filtered flows from the melting pans.
By this arrangement the work of a refinery can be carried on with about one-half the cisterns otherwise required, because, although it does not reduce the number of bags required per day for a given amount of work, it enables the refiner to use one cistern twice a day with fresh bags, instead of only once as heretofore.
The clear, bright syrup coming from the bag filters passes to the charcoal cisterns or filters.
In most modern refineries the cisterns are so arranged that the spent char falls on to a travelling band and is conducted to an elevator which carries it up to the drying floor of the charcoal kiln.
In the best-appointed refineries the whole of the work in connexion with the char is performed mechanically, with the exception of packing the filter cisterns with fresh char and emptying the spent and washed char on to the carrying bands.
In former days, when refining sugar or " sugar baking " was supposed to be a mystery only understood by a few of the initiated, there was a place in the refinery called the " secret room," and this name is still used in some refineries, where, however, it applies not to any room, but to a small copper cistern, constructed with five or six or more divisions or small canals, into which all the charcoal cisterns discharge their liquors by pipes led up from them to the top of the cistern.
We know nothing further about the Greek system, but in the Roman adjustment the water was led from this series of cisterns into a large rectangular basin which formed the centre of a quadrangle 50 ft.
To the Phoenician period, besides the tombs already mentioned, belong some remains of houses and cisterns, and (probably) a few round towers which are scattered about the island, while the important Roman house at Cittavecchia is the finest monument of this period in the islands.
Two enormous cisterns, maintained by public charitable trusts, supply the town with water in dry seasons.
Bona is identified with the ancient Aphrodisium, the seaport of Hippo Regius or Ubbo, but it derives its name from the latter city, the ruins of which, consisting of large cisterns, now restored, and fragments of walls, are about a mile to the south of the town.
"We can now easily conceive," he says, "that in all rain-water which is collected from gutters in cisterns, and in all waters exposed to the air, animalcules may be found; for they may be carried thither by the particles of dust blown about by the winds."
Slabs are also manufactured, and, being readily cut, planed, dressed and enamelled, are used for chimney pieces, billiard tables, wall linings, cisterns, paving, tomb-stones, ridge rolls, electrical switch-boards and various other architectural and industrial purposes.
The ancient cisterns still supply the town with water.
With the help of these and other victories (at Jahaz, Aroer, &c.), Moab recovered its territory, fortified its cities, supplied them with cisterns, and Mesha built a great sanctuary to his god.
In the suburbs are huge cisterns, attributed to the 9th century, which still supply the city with water.
For use with wood which is exposed to moisture, as in the case of wooden cisterns, a mixture may be made of 4 parts of linseed oil boiled with litharge, and 8 parts of melted glue; other strong cements for the same purpose are prepared by softening gelatine in cold water and dissolving it by heat in linseed oil, or by mixing glue with one-fourth of its weight of turpentine, or with a little bichromate of potash.
A narrow passage leads inward to the Plaza de los Aljibes (Place of the Cisterns), a broad open space which divides the Alcazï¿½ from the Moorish palace.
The Torres Bermejas (Vermilion Towers), also on Monte Mauror, are a well-preserved Moorish fortification, with underground cisterns, stables, and accommodation for a garrison of 200 men.
There are no streams near the ruins, and the water-supply was derived from cisterns and from a few pools now filled with soil and vegetation.
Kazvin has many baths and cisterns fed by underground canals.
Within the city the water was stored in covered cisterns, or in large open reservoirs.
The cistern of Bin Bir Derek (cistern of Illus) with its 22 4 columns, each built up with three shafts, and the cistern Yeri Batan Serai (Cisterna Basilica) with its 420 columns show what covered cisterns were, on a grand scale.
The use of the old cisterns within the walls has been almost entirely abandoned, and the water is led to basins in vaulted chambers (Taxim), from which it is distributed by underground conduits to the fountains situated in the different quarters of the city.
A few fragments of undoubtedly Roman pottery and some Roman coins have been found there, but the cisterns and the ruins of houses are probably of later date (P. Calcara, Descrizione dell' Isola di Linosa, Palermo, 1851, 29).
But the cisterns which you have dug for yourselves are broken and profitless to you.
More rarely the action is continuous, and the water after being passed through lead cisterns and pipes produces lead poisoning - so called " plumbism."
On the introduction of the Waterworks Clauses Act 1847, an impetus was given to high-pressure supplies, and the same systems of distributing mains were frequently employed for the purpose; but with few exceptions the water continued to be supplied intermittently, and cisterns or tanks were necessary to store it for use during the periods of intermission.
The old aqueduct, which was constructed in the 17th century by Carnignano and Criminelli and taps the Isclero at Sant' Agata dei Goti, is still available to a certain extent, but its water was never very wholesome, and as it was not laid on to houses but only supplied fountains and house cisterns which have since been filled up, no account need be taken of it.
There are also remains of a much smaller theatre (the so-called Odeum), and some large cisterns; a large bath or tank which was apparently open, known as the Naumachia, measures 4262 ft.