It was reached from Rome by the Via Flaminia, constructed in 220 B.C., and from that time onwards was the bulwark of the Roman power in Cisalpine Gaul, to which province it even gave its name.
No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
At first, indeed, the term was apparently confined to the regions of the central and southern districts, exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul and the whole tract north of the Apennines, and this continued to be the official or definite signification of the name down to the end of the republic. But the natural limits of Italy are so clearly marked that the name came to be generally employed as a geographical term at a much earlier period.
Cisalpine Gaul, including the whole of northern Italy, still constituted a province, an appellation never applied to Italy itself.
The eighth region, termed Gallia Cispadana, comprised the southern portion of Cisalpine Gaul, and was bounded on the north (as its name implied) by the river Padus or P0, from above Placentia to its mouth.
The eleventh region, known as Gallia Transpadana, included all the rest of Cisalpine Gau1 from the Padus on the south and the Addua on the east to the foot of the Alps.
The road system of Cisalpine Gaul was mainly co1~ litioned by the rivers which had to be crossed, and the Alpine passes which had to be approached.
The Transpadane Republic, or, as it was soon called, the Cisalpine 7l~~ Republic, began its organized life on the 9th of July Republic. 1797, with a brilliant festival at Milan.
A month later, under the pretence of stilling the civil strifes in the Valtelline, Bonaparte absorbed that Swiss district in the Cisalpine Republic, which thus included all the lands between Como and Verona on the north, and Rimini on the south.
Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics (reconstituted soon after Marengo) were recognized by Austria on condition that they were independent of France.
The Corniche road was improved; and public works in various parts of Piedmont, and the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics attested the foresight and wisdom of the great organizer of industry and quickener of human energies.
The complete disregard shown by Napoleon for one of the chief conditions of the treaty of Lunville (February 1801)that stipulating for the independence of the Ligurian and Cisalpine Republicsbecame more and more apparent every year.
Roman armies began to enter it about 218 B.C. In 121 B.C. the coast from 1 When Cisalpine Gaul became completely Romanized, it was often known as "Gallia Togata," while the Province was distinguished as "Gallia Bracata" (bracae, incorrectly braccae, " trousers"), from the long trousers worn by the inhabitants, and the rest of Gaul as "Gallia Comata," from the inhabitants wearing their hair long.
The bounds of the thus enlarged Cisalpine Republic were afterwards extended eastwards to the banks of the Adige by the terms of the treaty of Campo Formio; and in November 1797 Bonaparte added the formerly Swiss district of the Valtelline, north-east of Lake Como, to its territory.
The rest of the Venetian mainland (the districts between the rivers Adige and Ticino) went to the newly constituted Cisalpine republic, France gaining the Ionian Isles and the Venetian fleet.
True, she now agreed to recognise the independence of the Cisalpine, Ligurian, Helvetic and Batavian (Dutch) republics; but the masterful acquisitiveness of the First Consul and the weak conduct of Austrian and British affairs at that time soon made that clause of the treaty a dead letter.
In September 1801 he bestowed on the Cisalpine republic a constitution modelled on that of France.
The Italian republic (formerly the Cisalpine republic) became the kingdom of Italy.
The matter was of international importance; for by the treaty of Luneville (February 1801) he had bound himself to respect the independence of the two republics of North Italy, the Cisalpine and the Ligurian.
In the two preceding periods the rapid diffusion of literary culture following the Social War and the first Civil War was seen to awaken into new life the elements of original genius in Italy and Cisalpine Gaul.
During the meeting of Italian notables at Lyons early in 1802 Talleyrand was serviceable in manipulating affairs in the way desired by Bonaparte, and it is known that the foreign minister suggested to them the desirability of appointing Bonaparte president of the Cisalpine Republic, which was thenceforth to be called the Italian Republic. In the negotiations for peace with England which went on at Amiens during the winter of 1801-2 Talleyrand had no direct share, these (like those at Luneville) being transacted by Napoleon's eldest brother, Joseph Bonaparte (q.v.).
He advocated a republic under the dominion of the French in a pamphlet I Tedeschi, i Francesi, ed i Russi in Lombardia, and under the Cisalpine Republic he was named historiographer and director of statistics.
Antonius Gnipho, a native of Gaul (by which Cisalpine Gaul may be meant), who is said to have been equally learned in Greek and Latin literature, and to have set up in later years a school of rhetoric which was attended by Cicero in his praetorship 66 B.C. It is possible that Caesar may have derived from him his interest in Gaul and its people and his sympathy with the claims of the Romanized Gauls of northern Italy to political rights.
Caesar secured the passing of a legislative enactment conferring upon himself the government of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria for five years, and exacted from the terrorized senate the addition of Transalpine Gaul, where, as he well knew, a storm was brewing which threatened to sweep away Roman civilization beyond the Alps.
The existing fragments tell us little as to the decentralization of the functions of government, but from the Lex Rubria, which applies to the Transpadane districts enfranchised by Caesar (it must be remembered that Cisalpine Gaul remained nominally a province until 42 B.C.) we gather that considerable powers of independent jurisdiction were reserved to the municipal magistrates.
Julius Caesar extended the sphere of the Roman municipal system by his enfranchisement of Cisalpine Gaul, and the consequent inclusion of all the towns of that region in the category of municipia.
But, excepting those in Cisalpine Gaul, the municipal system still embraced no towns outside Italy other than the citizen colonies.
After serving in the legations in Switzerland and the Cisalpine republic, he was appointed in 1799 attaché to the French legation at Berlin, of which three years later he became charge d'affaires.
Gaius Cassius, governor of Cisalpine Gaul, and the praetor Gnaeus Manlius, who attempted to stop him, were defeated at Mutina.
RUBICON, a small stream of ancient Italy, which flowed into the Adriatic between Ariminum and Caesena, and formed the boundary between Italy and the province of Cisalpine Gaul.
He was bitterly attacked by Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) in the senate on the ist of September for not being present there, and on the next day replied in his First Philippic. He then left Rome and devoted himself to the completion of the de Qfficiis, and to the composition of his famous Second Philippic, which was never delivered, but was circulated, at first privately, after Antony's departure from Rome to Cisalpine Gaul on the 28th of November.
In 1795 he took up his abode at Modena, and was for twelve years engaged in politics, becoming a member of the legislative body, a councillor of state, and minister plenipotentiary of the Cisalpine Republic at Turin.
This system had already been applied to the Batavian republic in 1795, totheLigurian and Cisalpine republics in June 1797; it was extended to that of MUlhausen on the 28th of January 1798, to the Roman republic in February, to the Helvetian in April, while the Parthenopaean republic (Naples) was to be established in 1799.
This explains the retention of Italy, imposed on the Directory from 1796 onward, followed by his criminal treatment of Venice, the foundation of the Cisalpine republica foretaste of future annexatiofis the restoration of that republic after his return from Egypt, and in view of his as yet inchoate designs, the postponed solution of the Italian problem which the treaty of Lunville bad raised.
He wanted to make this his Cisalpine Gaul, laying siege to the Roman state on every hand, and preparing in the Concordat for t~ie moral and material servitude of the pope.
This process served the turn of the Romans, who little by little had subjugated first the Cisalpine Gauls and afterwards those inhabiting the south-east of France, which was turned into a Roman province in the 2nd century.
During the civil war between Marius and Sulla he sided with the former, but was defeated by Sulla at mount Tifata near Capua, and again by Metellus at Faventia in Cisalpine Gaul (82).
Cisalpine Gaul was apparently formed into a province by Sulla in 81 B.C. and continued to be so until the fall of the Republic.
He was ordained priest in 1797, and in the same year became professor of Arabic in the university, but shortly afterwards was deprived for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the Cisalpine Republic. In 1803 he was appointed assistant librarian of the institute of Bologna, and soon afterwards was reinstated as professor of oriental languages and of Greek.
The one he called his Transalpine, the other his Cisalpine Parnassus.
Moreover, at the time of Livy's birth, Padua had long been in possession of the full Roman franchise, and the historian's family name may have been taken by one of his ancestors out of compliment to the great Livian gens at Rome, whose connexion with Cisalpine Gaul is well-established (Suet.
He surrounded himself with a bodyguard of Caesar's veterans, and forced the senate to transfer to him the province of Cisalpine Gaul, which was then administered by Decimus Junius Brutus, one of the conspirators.