Cynegils' next struggle was with Penda of Mercia, and here again he was worsted, the battle being fought in 628 at Cirencester, and was probably compelled to surrender part of his kingdom to Mercia.
In 1845 the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester was incorporated.
Having become an Augustinian canon, he was appointed abbot of Cirencester in 1213.
North-west of York and the most northerly Romano-British town; Ratae, now Leicester, capital of the Coritani; Viroconium, now Wroxeter, near Shrewsbury, capital of the Cornovii; Venta Silurum, now Caerwent, near Chepstow; Corinium, now Cirencester, capital of the Dobuni; Isca Dumnoniorum, now Exeter, the most westerly of these towns; Durnovaria, now Dorchester, in Dorset, capital of the Durotriges; Venta Belgarum, now Winchester; Calleva Atrebatum, now Silchester, 10 m.
The fifth is that known to the English as the Fosse, which joins Lincoln and Leicester with Cirencester, Bath and Exeter.
In his reign the Chronicle mentions two great victories over the Welsh, one at a place called Bedcanford in 571, by which Aylesbury and the upper part of the Thames valley fell into the hands of the West Saxons, and another at Deorham in 577, which led to the capture of Cirencester, Bath and Gloucester.
In 577 he led the West Saxons from Winchester towards the Severn valley; gained an important victory over some British kings at Deorham, and added the district round Gloucester, Bath and Cirencester to his kingdom.
We there learn that the following place-names are ultimately of Celtic origin: - Brougham, Catterick, York, Lincoln (Lindum), Manchester (Mancunium), Doncaster (Danum), Wroxeter (Viroconium), Lichfield (Letocetum), Gloucester (Glevum), Cirencester (Corinium), Colchester (Camulodunum), London, Reculver, Richborough (Rutupiae), Dover, Lymne, Isle of Wight, Dorchester (Durnovaria), Sarum, Exeter (Isca), Brancaster (Branodunum), Thanet.
Tadcaster, Lancaster; and in the south-west and in the midlands we have a group of towns with the form cester: - Bicester, Gloucester, Cirencester, Worcester, Alcester, Leicester, Towcester.
Kent and Salisbury were slain at Cirencester, the others captured and executed with many of their followers.
In 628 the Chronicle records a battle between him and the West Saxons at Cirencester in that year.
On the abbot and monks of Cirencester, who continued to hold it until the reign of Henry VIII.
RICHARD OF CIRENCESTER (c. 1335 - c. 1401), historical writer, was a member of the Benedictine abbey at Westminster, and his name ("Circestre") first appears on the chamberlain's list of the monks of that foundation drawn up in the year 1355.
To the west of the town is Cirencester House, the seat of Earl Bathurst.
The industries of Cirencester comprise various branches of agriculture.
Cirencester (Cirneceaster, Cyrenceaster, Cyringceaster) is described in Domesday as ancient demesne of the crown.
The struggle of the townsmen to prove that Cirencester was a borough probably began in the same year, when they were amerced for a false presentment.
According to the Saxon Chronicle, Penda began to reign in 626, and fought against the West Saxons at Cirencester in 628.
Four inquisitions during the 13th century supported the abbot's claims, yet in 1343 the townsmen declared in a chancery bill of complaint that Cirencester was a borough distinct from the manor, belonging to the king but usurped by the abbot, who since 1308 had abated their court of provostry..
These were confirmed in 1408-1409 and 1413; in 1418 the charter was annulled, and in 1477 parliament declared that Cirencester was not corporate.
Cirencester became a parliamentary borough in 1572, returning two members, but was deprived of representation in 1885.
The wool trade gave these great importance; in 1341 there were ten wool merchants in Cirencester, and Leland speaks of the abbots' cloth-mill, while Camden calls it the greatest market for wool in England.