Lime of the limestone and the ash of the fuel to form a complex molten silicate called the " cinder " or " slag."
It has numerous cinder cones on its S.W.
Cinder cones and tufa cones abound, but one of the most distinguishing features of the Hawaiian volcanoes is the great number of craters of the engulfment type, i.e.
This removal of the cinder very greatly improved the steel; but the process was and is so costly that it is used only for making steel for purposes which need the very best quality.
Cinder cones are the predominant type of craters on both Mauna Kea and the Kohala Mountains, and they are also numerous on the upper slopes of Mauna Hualalai; but the more typically Hawaiian pit or engulfment craters also abound on Mauna Hualalai and Mokuaweoweo, crowning the summit of Mauna Loa, as well as Kilauea, to the S.E.
Beyond this, wrought iron, and certain classes of steel which then were important, necessarily contained much slag or " cinder," because they were made by welding together pasty particles of metal in a bath of slag, without subsequent fusion.
From the floor of the crater rise sixteen well-preserved cinder-cones, which range from more than 400 ft.
GG; Flanges on the ore bucket; P, Cinder notch; HH, Fixed flanges on the top of RR', Water cooled boxes; the furnace; S, Blast pipe; J, Counterweighted false bell; T, Cable for allowing conical K, Main bell; bottom of bucket to 0, Tuyere; drop.
8), temporarily stopped with clay, at the very bottom, and the slag through another hole a little higher up, called the " cinder notch."
But, roll and re-roll as often as we like, much cinder remains imbedded in the iron, in the form of threads and rods drawn out in the direction of rolling, and of course weakening the metal in the transverse direction.
The removal of phosphorus, a very important duty of the puddling process, requires that the cinder shall be " basic," i.e.
Slag or Cinder, a characteristic component of wrought iron, which usually contains from 0.20 to 2.00% of it, is essentially a silicate of iron (ferrous silicate), and is present in wrought iron simply because this product is made by welding together pasty granules of iron in a molten bath of such slag, without ever melting the resultant mass or otherwise giving the envelopes of slag thus imprisoned a chance to escape completely.
7, (2) that it will be fluid enough to run out through the cinder notch, and (3) that it will be rich enough in lime to supply that needed for the desulphurizing reaction FeS+ CaO+C = Fe+CaS+CO.
Of these the first escapes immediately as a gas, and the others unite with iron oxide, lime, or other strong base present to form a molten silicate or silica-phosphate called " cinder " or " slag," which floats on the molten or pasty metal.
The essential difficulty has been that none of them could subdivide the rapidly solidifying charge into the small balls which the workman dexterously forms by hand, and that if the charge is not thus subdivided but drawn as a single ball, the cinder cannot be squeezed out of it thoroughly enough.
But this basicity implies that for each part of the silica or silicic acid which inevitably results from the oxidation of the silicon of the pig iron, the cinder shall contain some three parts of iron oxide, itself a valuable and expensive substance.
The grate b retains any small pieces of fuel, but allows the liquid cinder to pass through.
Of Mauna Loa, and blending with it in an intervening plateau, is Mauna Kea (" White Mountain," so named from the snow on its summit), with a much smaller base but with steeper slopes and a crowning cinder cone 13,823 ft.
The third period has for its great distinction the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes, which are like Huntsman's crucible process in that their essence is their freeing wrought iron and low carbon steel from mechanically entangled cinder, by developing the hitherto unattainable temperature, rising to above 1500° C., needed for melting these relatively infusible products.