The inactive mixture may be resolved into its active components by fractional crystallization of the cinchonine salt, when the salt of the dextro modification separates first; or the ammonium salt may be fermented by Penicillium glaucum, when the laevo form is destroyed and the dextro form remains untouched; on the other' hand, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus destroys the dextro form, but does not touch the laevo form.
But the forests of Huanuco and Huamalios abound in species yielding the grey bark of commerce, which is rich in cinchonine, an alkaloid efficacious as a febrifuge, though inferior to quinine.
In the anhydrous state it melts at 205-206° C. Mesotartaric acid is formed when cinchonine tartrate is heated for some time at 170° C. (L.
It is a decomposition product of various alkaloids (nicotine, sparteine, cinchonine, &c.), being formed when they are strongly heated either alone or with zinc dust.
The other alkaloids are distinguished from quinine thus: quinidine resembles quinine, but is dextro-rotatory, and the iodide is very insoluble in water; the solution of cinchonidine, which is laevo-rotatory, does not give the thalleoquin test, nor fluorescence; cinchonine resembles cinchonidine in these respects, but is dextrorotatory.
A mixture of the cinchona alkaloids, consisting principally of cinchonidine sulphate, with smaller quantities of the sulphates of quinine and cinchonine, is sold under the name of "quinetum" at a cheaper rate than quinine.
These relations are shown by the formulae: - cinchonine = C19H21N2.
Cinchonine yields on oxidation cinchoninic acid (y - quinoline carboxylic acid).
This permits the writing of cinchonine, for example, as C,H6N CioH15(OH)N, the hydroxy group being in the part CioH15(OH)N, about which the constitution is uncertain.
The sulphate of quinine used in medicine may contain up to 3% of cinchonidine, but should be free from cinchonine, quinidine and cupreine.
The other alkaloids of cinchona bark - quinidine, cinchonidine, and cinchonine - also possess similar properties, but all are much less effective than quinine.
From analyses of the leaves, bark and root, it appears that quinine is present only in small quantities in the leaves, in larger quantity in the stem bark, and increasing in proportion as it approaches the root, where quinine appears to decrease and cinchonine to increase in amount, although the root bark is generally richer in alkaloids than that of the stem.
It has also been shown by Broughton that C. Peruviana, which yields cinchonine but no quinine at a height of 6000 ft., when grown at 7800 ft.
18 34, 31, p. 68), and later by C. Gerhardt by the distillation of cinchonine, quinine and other alkaloids with caustic potash (Ann., 1842, 42, p. 310; 44, p. 279).
Lepidine(y-methylquinoline) was first obtained by distilling cinchonine with caustic potash.
Cinchoninic acid (quinoline-y-carboxylic acid) is formed when cinchonine is oxidized by nitric acid, or by the oxidation of lepidine.