In other accounts, he is confined in the land of the Arimi in Cilicia (Iliad, ii.
His passage through Cilicia was marked by a violent fever that arrested him for a while in Tarsus, and meantime a great Persian army was waiting for him in northern Syria under the command of Darius himself.
Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum.
Among such settlements may be mentioned Phaselis in Lycia, perhaps also Soli in Cilicia, Salapia on the east Italian coast, Gela in Sicily, the Lipari islands, and Rhoda in north-east Spain.
Cicero, who entertained a high opinion of Deiotarus, whose acquaintance he had made when governor of Cilicia, undertook his defence, the case being heard in Caesar's own house at Rome.
Next year (92) he went as propraetor of Cilicia with special authority from the senate to make Mithradates VI.
During his brief reign he set on foot some domestic reforms, and sought to revive the authority of the senate, but, after a victory over the Goths in Cilicia, he succumbed to hardship and fatigue (or was slain by his own soldiers) at Tyana in Cappadocia.
A defensive coalition was formed in which the kings of Cilicia, Hamath, the Phoenician coast, Damascus and Ammon, the Arabs of the Syrian desert, and " Ahabbu Sinai " were concerned.
- Though it was continually torn by civil dissensions, the island maintained its independence of the various Macedonian monarchs by whom it was surrounded; but having incurred the enmity of Rome, first by an alliance with the great Mithradates, and afterwards by taking active part with their neighbours,the pirates of Cilicia, the Cretans were at length attacked by the Roman arms, and, after a resistance protracted for more than three years, were finally subdued by Q.
The king of Cilicia (Syennesis) voluntarily acknowledged the Persian supremacy.
By dexterous management and large promises he overcame the scruples of the Greek troops against the length and danger of the war; a Spartan fleet of thirty-five triremes sent to Cilicia opened the passes of the Amanus into Syria and conveyed to him a Spartan detachment of 700 men under Cheirisophus.
Philopator (reigned 187-176), consisted of Syria (now including Cilicia and Palestine), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persis).
Under Odenathus Palmyra had extended her sway over Syria and Arabia, perhaps also over Armenia, Cilicia and Cappadocia; but now the troops of Zenobia, numbering it is said 70,000, proceeded to occupy Egypt; the Romans under Probus resisted vigorously but without avail, and by the beginning of A.D.
He approached by way of Cappadocia, where he reduced the Palmyrene garrisons, and thence through Cilicia he entered Syria.
Bohemund's policy seems to have inspired Baldwin, the brother of Godfrey of Bouillon to emulation; on the one hand he strove to thwart the endeavours of Tancred, the nephew of Bohemund, to begin the foundation of the Eastern principality for his uncle by conquering Cilicia, and, on the other, he founded a principality for himself in Edessa.
Here Tancred, followed by Baldwin, turned into Cilicia, and began to take possession of the Cilician towns, and especially of Tarsus - thus beginning, it would seem, the creation of the Norman principality of Antioch.
We have seen that the action of Bohemund at Antioch was the negation of this theory, and that Alexius in consequence helped Raymund to establish himself in Tripoli as a thorn in the side of Bohemund, and sent an army and a fleet which wrested from the Normans the towns of Cilicia (1104).
The defeat of Bohemund at Durazzo in 1108 had resulted in a treaty, which made Antioch a fief of Alexius; but Tancred (who in 1107 had recovered Cilicia from the Greeks) refused to fulfil the terms of the treaty, and Alexius (who attempted - but in vain - to induce Baldwin I.
Thus, although Alexius had been able, in the wake of the crusading armies, to recover a large belt of land round the whole coast of Asia Minor, - the interior remaining subject to the sultans of Konia (Iconium) and the princes of Sivas, - he left the territories to the east of the western boundary of Cilicia in the hands of the Latins when he died in 1118.
Not for 20 years after his death did the Eastern empire make any attempt to gain Cilicia or wrest homage from Antioch.
In 1142 he returned again, anxious to create a principality in Cilicia and Antioch for his younger son Manuel.
The people of Antioch refused to submit; a projected visit to Jerusalem, during which John was to unite with Fulk in a great alliance against the Moslem, fell through; and in the spring of 1143 the emperor died in Cilicia, with nothing accomplished.
Equally interesting are the relation of the Syro-Hittite with the Minoan, and we seem to find in certain objects found in Egypt and Cyprus and dating probably from the 14th to the Toth centuries, proof of the existence of a mixed art of Syrian origin, probably in Cilicia (Alashiya) at that time.
The Taurus and Iran, (8) Cilicia, (9) Syria, (io) Mesopotamia, (11) Babylonia, (12) Susiana; in Africa, (13) Egypt; in Iran, (4) Persis, (15) Media, (16) Parthia and Hyrcania, (17) Bactria and Sogdiana, (18) Areia and Drangiana, (19) Carmania, (20) Arachosia and Gedrosia; lastly the Indian provinces, (21) the Paropanisidae (the Kabul valley), and (22) the province assigned to Pithon, the son of Agenor, upon the Indus (J.
79, 7), Aribazus, governor of Cilicia (Flinders Petrie, Papyri, II., No.
Aratus of Soli in Cilicia, in his poetical Prognostics of Stars and the World, refers to a globe in his possession.
190-203) found it in use in the church of Rhossus in Cilicia, and condemned it as Docetic (Eusebius, H.E.
He was the first Parthian king who entered into negotiations with Rome, then represented by Sulla, praetor of Cilicia (92 B.C.).
By the earlier Greek authors (Herodotus, Thucydides and often in Xenophon) it is rendered by i»rapxos lieutenant, governor," in the documents from Babylonia and Egypt and in Ezra and Nehemiah by pakha, " governor "; and the satrap Mazaeus of Cilicia and Syria in the time of Darius III.
Fifty years later they were numerous in Syria and Cilicia, according to the Armenian bishops Nerses the Graceful and Nerses of Lambron.
Such coverings find their analogies among the peasants of modern Cilicia and Cappadocia.
The chief seat of cultivation in early times, however, was the town of Corycus (modern Korghoz) in Cilicia, and from this central point of distribution it may not improbably have spread east and west.
Together with another seer, Amphilochus, Mopsus founded Mallus in Cilicia after the return from Troy; and in a quarrel for its possession both lost their lives.
PAMPHYLIA, in ancient geography, the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mt Taurus.
CILICIA, in ancient geography, a district of Asia Minor, extending along the south coast from the Alara Su, which separated it from Pamphylia, to the Giaour Dagh (Mt.
It was naturally divided into Cilicia Trachea, W.
Of the Lamas Su, and Cilicia Pedias, E.
Cilicia Trachea is a rugged mountain district formed by the spurs of Taurus, which often terminate in rocky headlands with small sheltered harbours, - a feature which, in classical times, made the coast a resort of pirates, and, in the middle ages, led to its occupation by Genoese and Venetian traders.
Cilicia Pedias included the rugged spurs of Taurus and a large plain, which consists, in great part, of a rich stoneless loam.
Both passes are short and easy, and connect Cilicia Pedias geographically and politically with Syria rather than with Asia Minor.
In Roman times Cilicia exported the goats'-hair cloth, Cilicium, of which tents were made.
Under the Persian empire Cilicia was apparently governed by tributary native kings, who bore a name or title graecized as Syennesis; but it was officially included in the fourth satrapy by Darius.
Cilicia Trachea became the haunt of pirates, who were subdued by Pompey.
Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory in 103 B.C., and the whole was organized by Pompey, 64 B.C., into a province which, for a short time, extended to and included part of Phrygia.
Under Diocletian (circa 297), Cilicia, with the Syrian and Egyptian provinces, formed the Diocesis Orientis.
Cilicia Trachea was occupied by the Osmanlis in the 15th century, but Cilicia Pedias was only added to the empire in 1515.
From 1833 to 1840 Cilicia formed part of the territories administered by Mehemet Ali of Cairo, who was compelled to evacuate it by the allied powers.
By Lycaonia, Isauria and Cilicia, and on the W.
His father was Cassius Apronianus, governor of Dalmatia and Cilicia under Marcus Aurelius, and on his mother's side he was the grandson of Dio Chrysostom, who had assumed the surname of Cocceianus in honour of his patron the emperor Cocceius Nerva.
After his father's death, Dio Cassius left Cilicia for Rome (180) and became a member of the senate.
(1) A vilayet in Asia Minor which includes the whole, or parts of, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Phrygia, Lycaonia, Cilicia and Cappadocia.
When Tancred left the main body of the crusaders at Heraclea, and marched into Cilicia, Baldwin followed, partly in jealousy, partly from the same political motives which animated Tancred.
They went through Thrace, visiting Athens, Bithynia, Galatia, Pontus, Cappadocia and Cilicia, to Antioch, Jerome observing and making notes as they went.
He was interested in the theological disputes and schisms in Galatia, in the two languages spoken in Cilicia, &c. At Antioch the party remained some time.
His illness increasing, he landed in Cilicia, and died at Selinus early in August i i 7.
Lentulus played a prominent part in the recall of Cicero from exile, and although a temporary coolness seems to have arisen between them, Cicero speaks of him in most grateful terms. From 56-53 Lentulus was governor of the province of Cilicia (with Cyprus) and during that time was commissioned by the senate to restore Ptolemy XI.
These soon ex tended over the whole of Cilicia and, before they had ceased, involved the death of some 20,000 Armenians and a lesser number of Moslems. Both the Government and the Sultan Abdul Hamid have been charged with responsibility for the outbreak; but instigation to the deed, though not perhaps directly from the Government, appears to have come from the Committee.
Its existence as a port began with the silting up of the harbour of Tarsus and Pompeiopolis, east and west, in the early middle ages; but it did not rise to importance till the Egyptian occupation of Cilicia (1832).
Like all lowland Cilicia, it has a notoriously bad summer climate, and all inhabitants, who can do so, migrate to stations on the lower slopes of Taurus.
In 53 he entered upon the governorship of Cilicia, in which capacity he seems to have been rapacious and tyrannical.
858 B.C. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria, as well as Cilicia and Ararat.
The " confirmation " of the existing churches of Syria and Cilicia, and of those of the first journey beginning with Derbe (xv.