Cleanthes is said to have held that all survive to the great conflagration which closes the cycle, Chrysippus that only the wise will.
In later times Orphic theology engaged the attention of Greek philosophersEudemus the Peripatetic, Chrysippus the Stoic, and Proclus the Neoplatonist, but it was an especially favourite study of the grammarians of Alexandria, where it became so intermixed with Egyptian elements that Orpheus came to be looked upon as the founder of mysticism.
Like the earlier Stoics, Cleanthes and Chrysippus, he held that virtue may be taught.
This problem was taken up by Chrysippus, who admitted that he could not solve it.
The chief objects of his study, however, were the works of Chrysippus, opposition to whose views is the mainspring of his philosophy.
"If Chrysippus had not been," he is reported to have said, "I had not been either."
CHRYSIPPUS (c. 280-206 B.C.), Greek philosopher, the third great leader of the Stoics.
Diogenes Laertius says, "If the gods use dialectic, they can use none other than that of Chrysippus"; A yap v Xpuvciriros, oinc av i v Ewa, ("Without Chrysippus, there had been no Porch").
Having murdered his stepbrother Chrysippus, Atreus fled with Thyestes to Mycenae, where he succeeded Eurystheus in the sovereignty.
One of these sub-species, merope, which ranges from the west coast to Victoria Nyanza, is polymorphic and occurs under three forms, namely (a) hippocoon, which mimics the Danaine Amauris niavius; (b) trophonius, which mimics the Danaine Limnas chrysippus; (c) planemoides, which mimics the Acraeine Planema poggei.
Diogenes Laertius in his account of the Stoics (vii.85, Tr] y OE - Opµrt y 4ao-c TO TO TripeEv EaITO) uses the phrase TnpEiv EavrO to describe the instinct for self-preservation, the inward harmony of Chrysippus, the recognition of which is auve1,50ves.
They contain works by Epicurus, Demetrius, Polystratus, Colotes, Chrysippus, Carniscus and Philodemus.
The Stoic teaching is derived from Cleanthes, Chrysippus and Zeno, and is criticized from the writings of Carneades and Clitomachus.
The 3rd century B.C. saw in its first half the close of Epicurus' activity, and the life-work of Chrysippus, the refounder of Stoicism, is complete before its close.
ZENO OF TARSUS, Stoic philosopher and pupil of Chrysippus, belonged to the period of the Middle Stoa.
By the old Stoa is meant the period (c. 304-205 B.C.) down to the death of Chrysippus, the second founder; then was laid the foundation of theory, to which hardly anything of importance was afterwards added.
Aristo of Chios and Herillus of Carthage, Zeno's heterodox pupils, Persaeus, his favourite disciple and housemate, the poet Aratus, and Sphaerus, the adviser of the Spartan king Cleomenes, are noteworthy minor names; but the chief interest centres about Zeno, Cleanthes, Chrysippus, who in succession built up the wondrous system.
In all these particulars Zeno followed them, and the last is the more important, because, Chrysippus having adopted a new criterion of truth - a clear and distinct perception of sense - it is only from casual.
From all danger of such a fate it was rescued by its third great teacher, Chrysippus; " but for Chrysippus there had been no Porch."
The representative of this tendency, Chrysippus, addressed himself to the congenial task of assimilating, developing, systematizing the doctrines bequeathed to him, and, above all, securing them in their stereotyped and final form, not simply from the assaults of the past, but, as after a long and successful career of controversy and polemical authorship he fondly hoped, from all possible attack in the future.
Such Cynic crudity Chrysippus rightly judged to be out of keeping with the requirements of a great dogmatic school, and he laboured on all sides after thoroughness, erudition and scientific completeness.
In short, Chrysippus made the Stoic system what it was, and as he left it we proceed to describe it.
But we can answer authoritatively that to Cleanthes and Chrysippus, if not to Zeno, there was no real difference between matter and its cause, which is always a corporeal current, and therefore matter, although the finest and subtlest matter.
Chrysippus determined it, following Zeno, to be fiery breath or ether, a spiritualized sublimed intermediate element.
In Heraclitus the constant flux is a metaphysical notion replaced by the interchange of material elements which Chrysippus stated as a simple proposition of physics.
It was a moot point whether all souls so survive, as Cleanthes thought, or the souls of the wise and good alone, which was the opinion of Chrysippus; in any case, sooner or later individual souls are merged in the soul of the universe, from which they proceeded.
That Zeno and Cleanthes crudely compared this presentation to the impression which a seal bears upon wax, with protuberances and indentations, while Chrysippus more prudently determined it vaguely as an occult modification or " mode " of mind, is an interesting but not intrinsically important detail But the mind is no mere passive recipient of impressions from without, in the view of the Stoics.
Yet, while they accepted slavery as a permanent institution, philosophers as wide apart as Chrysippus and Seneca sought to mitigate its evils in practice, and urged upon masters humanity in the treatment of their slaves.
Chrysippus did his best to reconcile the superstition with his own rational doctrine of strict causation.
When Chrysippus died (01.143 = 208-204 B.C.) the structure of Stoic doctrine was complete.
This was the most formidable assault the school ever encountered; that it survived was due more to the foresight and elaborate precautions of Chrysippus than to any efforts of that " pen-doughty " pamphleteer, Antipater (KaXauo i (as), who shrank from opposing himself in person to the eloquence of Carneades.
It is clear that the activity of these teachers was chiefly directed to ethics: they elaborated fresh definitions of the chief good, designed either to make yet clearer the sense of the formulas of Chrysippus or else to meet the more urgent objections of the New Academy.
Chrysippus declined to call himself or any of his contemporaries a sage.
Zeno and Chrysippus had introduced a repellent technical terminology; their writings lacked every grace of style.
Along with grammar, which had been a prominent branch of study under Chrysippus, philosophy, history, geography, chronology and kindred subjects came to be recognized as fields of activity no less than philology proper.
This was a serious departure from the principles of the system, facilitating a return of later Stoicism to the dualism of God and the world, reason and the irrational part in man, which Chrysippus had striven to surmount.3 Yet in the general approximation and fusion of opposing views which had set in, the Stoics fared far better than rival schools.
Baguet's Chrysippus (Louvain, 1822) is unfortunately very incomplete.
His penetrating intellect had mastered the subtleties of the system of Chrysippus, but they seldom appear in his works, at least without, apology.
To reconcile the ways of God to man had been the ambition of Chrysippus, as we know from Plutarch's criticisms. He argued plausibly that natural evil was a thing indifferent - that even moral evil was required in the divine economy as a foil to set off good.
The principles he applies are those which he had learned from the philosophers of the Stoic school - Chrysippus, Antipater and others.
Among his pupils were his successor, Chrysippus, and Antigonus, king of Macedon, from whom he accepted 2000 minae.
Moreover, the argument by means of which Chrysippus endeavoured to prove the compatibility of determinism with ethical responsibility is in some respects an anticipation of modern views.