In the Orthodox Church the chrism contains, besides olive oil, many precious spices and perfumes, and is known as " muron " or " myron."
The benediction of abbots, of priests at their ordination, of virgins taking the veil, of churches, cemeteries, oratories, and of all articles for use in connexion with the altar (chalices, patens, vestments, &c.), of military colours, of soldiers and of their arms. The holy oil is also blessed by bishops in the Roman Catholic Church; in the Greek Church, on the other hand, the oil for the chrism at baptism is blessed by the priest.
(August 2, 1571) to the bishops of the West Indies permitting the substitution of balsam of Peru for the balsam of the East in the preparation of the chrism to be used by the Catholic Church in America.
Augustine speaks of the salt administered to catechumens before baptism and of their exorcism as sacraments; and as late as 1129 Godefrid so calls the salt and water, oil and chrism, the ring and pastoral staff used in ordinations.
In penance, of the formula " I absolve thee "; in the Eucharist, of the words " This is my body " and " This is the cup of my blood " or " This is my blood "; in confirmation, of the words " I sign thee with sign of the cross and confirm thee with chrism of salvation in name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit "; in baptism, of the words " I baptize thee in the name of Father, Son and Holy Spirit (or among the Greeks " N.
Thus baptism is not valid if wine or ice be used instead of water, nor the Eucharist if water be consecrated in place of wine, nor confirmation unless the chrism has been blessed by a bishop; also olive oil must be used.
581, oration on the Baptism) asserts a " transformation " or " transelementation " (AeraarotXfiwo) of the elements into centres of mystic force; and assimilates their consecration to that of the water of baptism, of the altar, of oil or chrism, of the priest.
When the pope rode in procession to the station an acolyte, on foot, preceded him, bearing the holy chrism; and at the church seven regionary acolytes with candles went before him in the procession to the altar, while two others, bearing the vessel that contained a pre-consecrated Host, presented it for his adoration.
Such use of the chrism can be traced from the 2nd century.
In 517 the council of Epaone in Burgundy forbade any but stone pillars to be consecrated with chrism; but of course the decrees of this provincial council would not necessarily be received throughout the church.
These crosses must have been anointed by the bishop with chrism in the ritual of consecration before the altar can be used.
Besides the full functions of the presbyterate, or priesthood, bishops have the sole right (I) to confer holy orders, (2) to administer confirmation, (3) to prepare the holy oil, or chrism, (4) to consecrate sacred places or utensils (churches, churchyards, altars, &c.), (5) to give the benediction to abbots and abbesses, (6) to anoint kings.
It is on Maundy Thursday that in the Church of Rome the sacred oil is blessed, and the chrism prepared according to an elaborate ritual which is given in the Pontificale.
He renounced the cross which its priests had signed on him with their chrism, their sham baptisms and other magical rites.
The holy oil, chrism, or µvpov, as the Easterns call it, was prepared and consecrated on Maundy Thursday, and in the Gelasian sacramentary the formula used runs thus: "Send forth, 0 Lord, we beseech thee, thy Holy Spirit the Paraclete from heaven into this fatness of oil, which thou hast deigned to bring forth out of the green wood for the refreshing of mind and body; and through thy holy benediction may it be for all who anoint with it, taste it, touch it, a safeguard of mind and body, of soul and spirit, for the expulsion of all pains, of every infirmity, of every sickness of mind and body.
For with the same thou hast anointed priests, kings, and prophets and martyrs with this thy chrism, perfected by thee, 0 Lord, blessed, abiding within our bowels in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ."
In churches of the Greek rite a little of the old year's chrism is left in the jar to communicate its sanctity to that of the new.
" cream "), a mixture of olive oil and balm, used for anointing in the Roman Catholic church in baptism, confirmation and ordination, and in the consecrating and blessing of altars, chalices, baptismal water, &c. The consecration of the " chrism " is performed by a bishop, and since the 5th century has taken place on Maundy Thursday.
The " Chrisom " or " chrysom," a variant of " chrism," lengthened through pronunciation, is a white cloth with which the head of a newly baptized child was covered to prevent the holy oil from being rubbed off.
(h) They were anointed all over with chrism or scented oil, the priest reciting an appropriate formula.
(1) Usually the water in the font was exorcized, blessed and chrism poured into it, just before the catechumen entered it, (m) Easter was the usual season of baptism, but in the East Epiphany was equally favoured.
(j) They received the sign of the cross on the brow; the bishop usually dipped his thumb in the chrism and said: " In name of Father, Son and Holy Ghost, peace be with thee."