The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
Russia's advance westward raised indirectly the Eastern Question, because it threatened two of France's traditional allies, Sweden and Poland, and Choiseul considered that the best means of checkmating Catherine's 7l aryl, aggressive schemes was to incite France's third traditional ally, Turkey, to attack her.
East Falkland is almost bisected by two deep fjords, Choiseul and Brenton Sounds, which leave the northern and southern portions connected only by an isthmus a mile and a half wide.
Next to Stanley the most important place on East Falkland is Darwin on Choiseul Sound - a village of Scottish shepherds and a station of the Falkland Island Company.
Whether through jealous y of the ascendancy which Turgot had acquired over the king, or through the natural incompatibility of their characters, he was already inclined to take sides against Turgot, and the reconciliation between him and the queen, which took place about this time, meant that he was henceforth the tool of the Polignac clique and the Choiseul party.
Later he held a similar position at Tours, and there he attracted the attention of the duc de Choiseul, who invited him to visit him at Chanteloup. Hauterive thus came in contact with the great men who visited the duke, and one of these, the comte de Choiseul-Goiffier, on his appointment as ambassador to Constantinople in 1784 took him with him.
Her marriage with the dauphin, which took place at Versailles on the 16th of May 1770, was intended to crown the policy of Choiseul and confirm the alliance between Austria and France.
Was at that time supreme, formed the centre of a powerful anti-Choiseul cabal, which succeeded in less than a year after the dauphin's marriage in bringing about the fall of Choiseul and seriously threatening the stability of the Austrian alliance.
She was urgent in obtaining the dismissal of d'Aiguillon, and did all in her power to secure the recall of Choiseul, though without success.
Thus from the very first she appeared in the light of a partisan, having against her all the enemies of Choiseul and of the Austrian alliance, and was already given the nickname of "l'autrichienne" by mesdames the king's aunts.
Those of the prince de Ligne, Choiseul, Segur, Bouille, Dumouriez, &c. Some, such as those of Madame Campan, Weber, Clery, Mme de Tourzel, are prejudiced in her favour; others, such as those of Besenval, Lauzun, Soulavie, are equally prejudiced against her.
A royal commission, appointed by the duc de Choiseul to examine the constitutions, convoked a private assembly of fifty-one archbishops and bishops under the presidency of Cardinal de Luynes, all of whom except six voted that the unlimited authority of the general was incompatible with the laws of France, and that the appointment of a resident vicar, subject to those laws, was the only solution of the question fair on all sides.
Ceased to protect the Jesuits, there remained only the petty kingdom of Sardinia in their favour, though the fall of Choiseul in France raised the hopes of the Society for a time.
He discovered the three northern islands (Buka, Bougainville and Choiseul), and sailed through the channel which divides the two last and bears his name.
In 1788 the English lieutenant Shortland coasted along the south side of the chain, and, supposing it to be a continuous land, named it New Georgia; and in 1792 Captain Edward Manning sailed through the strait which separates Ysabel from Choiseul and now bears his name.
During these Wanderjahre he made the acquaintance of the poets Gellert and Jacobi, the learned Jean-Jacques Barthelemy, the duc de Choiseul, and Gottfried Achenwall, the statistician.
Blanc (2nd ed., 1859); Comtesse de Choiseul-Gouffier, Memoires historiques sur l'empereur Alexandre (1829), and Reminiscences sur l'empereur Alexandre I., &c. (Paris, 1862); Rulemann Friedrich Eylert, Charakterziige and historische Fragmente aus dem Leben Konig Friedrich Wilhelm's III.
De Stainville, afterwards duc de Choiseul, to Italy, where he spent three years in archaeological research.
Choiseul had a great regard for Barthelemy, and on his return to France, Barthelemy became an inmate of his house, and received valuable preferments from his patron.
The Committee of Public Safety, however, were no sooner informed by the duchess of Choiseul of the arrest, than they gave orders for his immediate release, and in 1793 he was nominated librarian of the Bibliotheque Nationale.
Nisard; his letters to the comte de Caylus were published by Antoine Serieys as Voyage en Italie (1801); and his letters to Mme du Deffand, with whom he was on intimate terms, in the Correspondance complete de Mme du Deffand avec la duchesse de Choiseul, l'abbe Barthelemy et M.
Confidential agents from the Swedish court had already prepared the way for him, and the duc de Choiseul, weary of Swedish anarchy, had resolved to discuss with him the best method of bringing about a revolution in Sweden.
Count Balint Miklos (1740-1805), son of Balint Jozsef, was an enthusiastic partisan of the duc de Choiseul, on whose dismissal, in 1764, he resigned the command of the French regiment of which he was the colonel.
The duc de Choiseul, who refused to acknowledge her, was disgraced in 1771; and the duc d'Aiguillon, who had the reputation of being her lover, took his place, and in concert with her governed the monarch.
He was intimate with the comtesse de Tesse, sister of the duc de Choiseul, and in 1781 met Madame de Crequy, then sixty-seven years of age, and began a long friendship with her.
Dumouriez then visited Italy and Corsica, Spain and Portugal, and his memorials to the duc de Choiseul on Corsican affairs led to his re-employment on the staff of the French expeditionary corps sent to the island, for which he gained the rank of lieutenant-colonel.
The fall of Choiseul brought about his recall, and somewhat later he was imprisoned in the Bastille, where he spent six months, occupying himself with literary pursuits.
Moreover, Choiseul, secretary Pens and of state for foreign affairs since 1758, made out of this 11ubC1~u~.
Choiseul, who at least had ~i policy that was sometimes, in the right, and,whp was very anxious to carry it out, then realized that the real quarrel had to be settled with England.
Of~the old allies of France, Choiseul preserved atleast Sweden by the coup d&tat of Gustavus III.; but instead of being as formerly the centre of great affairs, the cabinet of Versailles lost all its credit, and only exhibited before the eyes of contemptuous Europe Frances extreme state of decay.
Choiseul was the means of accelerating this revolution, not only by his abandonment of diplomatic traditions, but still more by his improvidence and violence.
Choiseul did not hesitate to attack through lits de justice or by exile a judiciary oligarchy which doubtless rested its pretensions merely on wealth, high birth, or that e!icroaching spirit that was the only counteracting agency to the monarchy.
The Choiseul party, which had gradually been reconstituted, under the influence of the queen, the princes, parlement, the prebendaries, and the trade corporations, worked adroitly to eliminate this reformer of lucrative abuses.
In 1768 he was recalled, ostensibly because of a mesalliance with Mme Testa, widow of a Pera surgeon, but really because Choiseul thought him not zealous enough in provoking a quarrel between Russia and Turkey.
See Choiseul-Gouffier, Voyage dans l'empire ottoman (Paris, 1842).