The relation of the chlorophyll to light has been studied by many observers.
The guard-cells contain chlorophyll, which is absent from typical epidermal cells, the latter acting as a tissue for water storage.
In the Algae such a cell consists essentially of: (1) a mass of protoplasm provided with (2) a nucleus and (3) an assimilating apparatus consisting of a colored protoplasmic body, called a chromatophore, the pigment of which in the pure green forms is chlorophyll, and which may then be called a cliloroplast.
Chlorophyll is not soluble in water, nor in acids or alkalies without decomposition.
The first chemical change suggested is an interaction between carbon dioxide and water, under the influence of light acting through chlorophyll, which leads to the simultaneous formation of formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide.
Each is a small protoplasmic body, in the meshes of whose vubstance the green coloring matter chlorophyll is contained in some form of solution.
The cells of the axis are commonly stouter and have much less chlorophyll than those of the appendages (Draparnaldia).
As much sugar as is produced in excess of the immediate requirements of the cell is converted into the insoluble form of starch by the plastidsof the chlorophyll apparatus, and is so withdrawn from the sphere of action, thereby enabling the construction of further quantities of sugar to take place.
Proteid Formation.We have seen that it has been suggested that the chlorophyll apparatus may perhaps be concerned in the manufacture of proteids as well as of carbohydrates.
These constitute a hypodermal layer, beneath which the chlorophyll cells of the parenchyma are densely packed together, and are elongated in a direction vertical to the surface of the leaf, forming the palisade tissue.
It is not certain either whether the action of the chlorophyll apparatus is confined to the manufacture of carbohydrates or whether it is concerned, and if so how far, with the construction of proteids also.
Monotropas afford an extreme case of it, having lost their chlorophyll almost entirely, and come to depend upon the Fungi for their nutrinient.
The principal symptom may show itself in general pallor, including all cases where the normal healthy green hue is replaced by a sickly yellowish hue indicating that the chlorophyll apparatus is deficient.
Jacobsen on some occasions found water in the surface layers of the Baltic supersaturated with oxygen, which he ascribed to the action of the chlorophyll in vegetable plankton; in other cases when examining the nearly stagnant water from deep basins he found a deficiency of oxygen due no doubt to the withdrawal of oxygen from solution, by the respiration of the animals and by the oxidation of the deposits on the bottom.
The want of chlorophyll restricts their mode of life - which is rarely aquatic - since they are therefore unable to decompose the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere, and renders them dependent on other plants or (rarely) animals for their carbonaceous food-materials.
In parasites (Lathraea, Orobanche) and in plants growing on decaying vegetable matter (saprophytes), in which no chlorophyll is formed, these scales are the only leaves produced.
Thus in the case of phycoerythrin the maximum absorption, apart from the great absorption at the blue end of the spectrum, is not, as in the case where chlorophyll occurs alone, near the Fraunhofer line B, but farther to the right beyond the line D.
Cellulose Chlorophyll and wax Caffeine .
The basal cell has less chlorophyll than the others, and is expanded and fixed firmly to the rock on which the plant grows by the basal surface, rh, thus forming a rudimentary rhizoid.
The root differs from the shoot in the characters of its surface tissues, in the absence of the green assimilative pigment chlorophyll, in the arrangement of its vascular system and in the mode of growth at the apex, all features which are in direct relation to its normally subterranean life and its fixative and absorptive functions.
Vinen, loc. cit.), with gallic and ellagic acids, ligneous fibre, water, and minute quantities of proteids, chlorophyll, resin, free sugar and, in the cells around the inner shelly chamber, calcium oxalate.
It is known as mesophyll, and is formed of two distinct series of cells, each containing the green chlorophyll-granules, but differing in form and arrangement.
There is usually distinguishable upon the surface of the oosphere an area free from chlorophyll, known as the receptive spot, at which the fusion with the antherozoid takes place; and in many cases, before fertilization, a small mucilaginous mass has been observed to separate itself off from the oosphere at this point and to escape through the pore.
It has been shown by means of spectroscopic observations that the green colour of the elytra, &c., is due to the presence of chlorophyll; and that the variations of the spectral bands are sufficient, after the lapse of many years, to indicate with some certainty the kind of leaves on which the insects were feeding shortly before they were killed.
Nearly all bacteria, owing to the absence of chlorophyll, are saprophytic or parasitic forms. Most of them are colourless, but FIG.
The Mycetozoa or Myxomycetes are a saprophytic group without chlorophyll, of simple structure and isolated position.
In such cells as are capable of absorbing it, by virtue oi their chlorophyll apparatus, the greater part of it is converted int< the potential form, and by the transport from cell to cell of th compounds constructed every part of the plant is put into possessiol of the energy it needs.
All chlorophyll plants require light, but in very different degrees, as exemplified even in the United Kingdom by the shade-bearing beech and yew contrasted with the light-demanding larch and birch; and as with temperature so with light, every plant and even every organ has its optimum of illumination.
Nutrition (assimilation) by the leaves includes the inhalation of air, and the interaction under the influence of light and in the presence of chlorophyll of the carbon dioxide of the air with the water received from the root, to form carbonaceous food.
Moreover, although the green portions of the flower do indeed perform the same office as the leaves, the more highly coloured and more specialized portions, which are further removed from the typical leaf-form, do not carry on those processes for which the presence of chlorophyll is essential; and the floral organs may, therefore, in a rough sense, be said to be parasitic upon the green parts.
Fungus, a mushroom), the botanical name covering in the broad sense all the lower cellular Cryptogams devoid of chlorophyll, which arise from spores, and the thallus of which is either unicellular or composed of branched or unbranched tubes or cell-filaments (hyphae) with apical growth, or of more or less complex wefted sheets or tissue-like masses of such (mycelium).
- This group derives its name from the circumstance that the cells contain in addition to the green colouring matter, chlorophyll, a blue-green colouring matter to which the term phycocyanin has been applied.
Notwithstanding the absence of chlorophyll, and the consequent parasitic or saprophytic habit, Bacteriaceae agree in so many morphological features with Cyanophyceae that the affinity can hardly be doubted.
- This group includes those algae in which the green colouring matter, chlorophyll, is not accompanied by a second colouring matter, as it is in other groups.
Instead of a single relatively large The Chlorophyceae excel all other groups of algae in the magnitude and variety of form of the chlorophyll-bodies.
By virtue of the possession of chlorophyll all algae are capable of utilizing carbonic acid gas as a source of carbon in the presence of sunlight.
Not only so, but the evident parallelism between this absorption of light and that by the chlorophyll of green plants, is completed by the demonstration that oxygen is set free by these bacteria - i.e.
In fleshy leaves which contain a great bulk of tissue in relation to their chlorophyll content, the central mesophyll contains little or no chlorophyll and acts as waterstorage tissue.
Recent experiments show that the influence of electric light on chlorophyll is similar to that of sunlight, and that deficiencies of natural light may to some extent be made good by its use.
It is quite a mistake to suppose that, apart from the chlorophyll function, the physiology of the fungus-cell is fundamentally different from that of ordinary plant-cells.
Principally the result of chlorophyll action on the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere decomposed by energy derived from the sun; and although we know little as yet concerning the magnitude of other processes of carbon-assimilation - e.g.
The frondose (thalloid) Jungermanniales show no such differentiation of an assimilating tissue, though the upper cells of the thallus usually have more chlorophyll than the rest.
It is sometimes forgotten, when discussing questions of animal nutrition, that all the food materials of all living organisms are prepared originally from inorganic substances in exactly the same way, in exactly the same place, and by the same machinery, which is the chlorophyll apparatus of the vegetable kingdom.
(A, B, C, D, E, H, L, M, P, from Engler and Prantl, by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann; F, G, K, 0, from Oltmanns, by permission of Gustav Fischer; Q, from by permission of the Clarendon Press; N 1, N 2, from Hauck, by permission of Eduard Kummer.) the brown colouring matter which is added to chlorophyll is identical with phycophaein; two varieties of it have been termed phycopyrrin and peridinine.
These are elongated in the direction of the length of the leaf, are always poor in chlorophyll and form a channel for conducting the products of assimilation away from the leaf into the stem.
The rays which in the absence of the solution of chlorophyll would have occupied those spaces have no power to pass through it, or in other words chlorophyll absorbs those particular rays of light which are missing.
As the action of the chlorophyll apparatus is directly dependent upon light, and the immediate result of its activity is the building up of complex compounds, it has become usual to speak of the processes it sets up under the name of photosynthesis.
In the Cyanophyceae the contents of the cell are differentiated into a central colorless region, and a peripheral layer containing the chlorophyll and other coloring matters together with granules of a reserve substance called cyanophycin.
This change of colour is chiefly occasioned by the diminished circulation in the leaves, and the higher degree of oxidation to which their chlorophyll has been submitted.
The schizomycetes or bacteria are minute vegetable organisms devoid of chlorophyll and multiplying by repeated bipartitions.
Substances contained in the Protoplastn.Starch may be found in the chlorophyll bodies in the form of minute granules as the first visible product of the assimilation of carbon dioxide, and it occurs in large quantities as a reserve food material in the cells of various parts of plants.
The cells of the epidermis are very closely united laterally and contain no green colouring matter (chlorophyll) except in the pair of cells - guard-cells - which bound the stomata.
The chloroplasts are generally distinguished by their green color, which is due to the presence of chlorophyll; but in many Algae this is masked by another coloring matterPh ycoerytlsrin in the Florideae, Phycophaein in the Phaeophyceae, and Phycocyanin in the Cyanophyceae.
The flat surface is spread to allow the maximum amount of sunlight to fall upon it, as it is by the absorption of energy from the sun's rays by means of the chlorophyll contained in the cells of the leaf that the building up of plant food is rendered possible; this process is known as photo-synthesis; the first stage is the combination of carbon dioxide, absorbed from the air taken in through the stomata into the living cells of the leaf, with water which is brought into the leaf by the wood-vessels.