By passing chloroform vapour over the heated dioxide the tetradiand tri-chlorides are formed, together with the free metal and a gaseous hydride, TiH 4 (Renz, Ber., 1906, 39, p. 2 49).
It is a liquid which boils at 135-136° C., and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and benzene.
The solubility of the gas in various liquids, as given by different observers, is zoo Volumes of Brine Water Alcohol Paraffin Carbon disulphide Fusel oil Benzene Chloroform Acetic acid Acetone It will be seen from this table that where it is desired to collect and keep acetylene over a liquid, brine, i.e.
By acting with ozone on a chloroform solution of iodine, F.
It is obtained by passing ammonia gas over hot coal; by subliming a mixture of ammonium chloride and potassium cyanide; by passing a mixture of ammonia gas and chloroform vapour through a red hot tube; and by heating a mixture of ammonia and carbon monoxide: CO+2NH 3 = NH 4 NC+H 2 0.
Chloroform boiled with alcoholic potash forms potassium formate (J.
In ccllapse following severe haemorrhage and in sudden and accidental arrest of the heart or respiration during chloroform narcosis an intramuscular injection of 1 gr.
CHLOROFORM (trichlor-methane), CHC1 3, a valuable anaesthetic, a colourless liquid, possessing an agreeable smell and a pleasant taste.
In the preparation of chloroform by the action of bleaching powder on ethyl alcohol it is probable that the alcohol is ..rst oxidized to acetaldehyde, which is subsequently chlorinated and then decomposed.
Chloroform solidifies in the cold and then melts at - 62° C.; it boils at 61.2° C., and has a specific gravity I.
Chloroform may be readily detected by the production of an isonitrile when it is heated with alcoholic potash and a primary amine; thus with aniline, phenyl isocyanide (recognized by its nauseating smell) is produced, CHC13+C6H5NH2+3KHO=C6H5NC+3KC1+3H20.
For the action and use of chloroform as an anaesthetic, see Anaesthesia.
The British Pharmacopoeia contains a watery solution - the Aqua Chloroformi - which is useful in disguising the taste of nauseous drugs; a liniment which consists of equal parts of camphor liniment and chloroform, and is a useful counter-irritant; the Spiritus Chloroformi (erroneously known as "chloric ether"), which is a useful anodyne in doses of from five to forty drops; and the Tinctura Chloroformi et Morphinae Composita, which is the equivalent of a proprietary drug called chlorodyne.
It has been used by some surgeons for the production of anaesthesia previous to the administration of ether or chloroform, but the use of the method is now more usually relegated to obstetric practice.
In chloroform solution it combines with anhydrous oxalic acid to form a compound, Sb2C18(C204), which is to be considered as COOSbC14 tetra-chlorstibonium oxalate I (R.
This latter compound may be chlorinated to perchloracetoacrylic chloride (9), from which the corresponding acid (to) is obtained by treatment with water; alkalis hydrolyse the acid to chloroform and dichlormaleic acid (I I).
If it be rubbed in or evaporation be prevented, it acts, like alcohol and chloroform, as an irritant.
Ruff and Curt Albert (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 53) by decomposing titanium fluoride with silicon chloroform in sealed vessels at 100 -120° C. It is a colourless gas which may be condensed to a liquid boiling at -80 2° C. On solidification it melts at about -110° C. The gas is very unstable, decomposing slowly, even at ordinary temperatures, into hydrogen,, silicon fluoride and silicon: 4SiHF 3 =2H 2 +3SiF 4 +Si.
Silicon chloroform, SiHC1 3, first prepared by H.
Silicon nitrogen hydride, SiNH, is a white powder formed with silicon amide when ammonia gas (diluted with hydrogen) is brought into contact with the vapour of silicon chloroform at -10° C. Trianilino silicon hydride, SiH (NHC 6 H 5) 3, is obtained by the action of aniline on a benzene solution of silicon chloroform.
Aquifolium, Hydrastis canadensis, &c. It is a yellow, crystalline solid, insoluble in ether and chloroform, soluble in 41 parts of water at 21°, and moderately soluble in alcohol.
Primary amines when heated with alcoholic potash and chloroform yield isonitriles, which are readily detected by their offensive smell.
The treatment of strychnine poisoning is to immediately evacuate the stomach with a stomach-pump or emetic, chloroform being administered to allay the spasms. If the patient can swallow, draughts of water containing tannic acid may be given.
The vapour of chloroform when passed through a red-hot tube yields hexachlorbenzene C 6 C1 6, perchlorethane C,C1 6, and some perchlorethylene C 2 C1 4 (W.
This tincture contains chloroform, morphine and prussic acid, and must be used with the greatest care.
The uses of chloroform which fall to be mentioned here are: - as a counter-irritant; as a local anaesthetic for toothache due to caries, it being applied on a cotton wool plug which is inserted into the carious cavity; as an antispasmodic in tetanus and hydrophobia; and as the best and most immediate and effective antidote in cases of strychnine poisoning.
It forms colourless needles which melt at 94° C.; and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, and caustic alkalis.
It is readily soluble in water and in alcohol, but is insoluble in chloroform and ether.
Oxygen is also administered in chloroform poisoning, and in threatened death from the inhalation of coal gas or nitrous oxides.
It exists in two crystalline forms. Nitric acid passed into its chloroform solution gives phenyl diazonium nitrate.
It is obtained by condensing benzal chloride with mercury diphenyl (Kekule and Franchimont, Ber., 1872, 5, p. 907); from benzal chloride or benzotrichloride and zinc dust or aluminium chloride; from chloroform or carbon tetrachloride and benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride; and deamidating diand tri-aminotriphenylmethane with nitrous acid and alcohol (0.
It is readily soluble in hydrocarbon solvents, in chloroform and in alcohol.
Calderon), or 280° C. (C. Graebe), and is readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether, but insoluble in chloroform and carbon bisulphide.
It is soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and boiling water.
It is a yellow, microcrystalline powder, soluble in water, alcohol and chloroform, and forming readily decomposed salts with acids.
According to this theory a " chemical type " embraced compounds containing the same number of equivalents combined in a like manner and exhibiting similar properties; thus acetic and trichloracetic acids, aldehyde and chloral, marsh gas and chloroform are pairs of compounds referable to the same type.
We may here mention the synthesis of oxyuvitic ester (5-methyl-4-oxy-I-3-benzene dicarboxylic ester) by the condensation of two molecules of sodium acetoacetic ester with one of chloroform (Ann., 1883, 222, p. 249).
Which with baryta gave chloroform and maleic acid.
The heptachlor compound when treated with chlorine water gives trichloraceto-pentachlorbutyric acid (6), which is hydrolysed by alkalis to chloroform and pentachlorglutaric acid (7), and is converted by boiling water into tetrachlor-diketo-Rpentene (8).
Pyrrol is readily converted into pyridine derivatives by acting with bromoform, chloroform, or methylene iodide on its potassium salt, t3-brom-and O-chlorpyridine being obtained with the first two compounds, and pyridine itself with the last.
If ozone is passed into a solution of rubber in chloroform the caoutchouc combines with a molecule of ozone forming a compound of the empirical composition C 5 H 8 O 8.
This should be painted on the affected part with a camel's hair brush dipped in chloroform, which facilitates the absorption of the alkaloid.
It is usually prepared by the so-called "Reimer" reaction (Ber., 1876, 9,p. 1268), in which chloroform acts on phenol in the presence of a caustic alkali, C 6 H 5 OH+CHC1 3 +4KHO = 3KCI+3H20+KOï¿½C6H4ï¿½CHO, some para-oxybenaldehyde being formed at the same time.
That quinine, chloroform, glycerin, alcohol, with others, had no attractive influence on them - negative chemiotaxis.
Over and above the bacterial intoxications we have a very extreme degree of fatty degeneration, widely distributed throughout the tissues, which is produced by certain organic and inorganic poisons; it is seen especially in phosphorus and chloroform poisoning.
Formic acid yields acridine, and the higher homologues give derivatives substituted at the meso carbon atom, N N +[[Hcooh-C 6 H 5 /Inc6h5->C6h4 C6h4 Cho Ch N N +Ch 3 000h->C 6 H 5 /IC 6 H 5 --C 6 H 4 < >C6h4 Coch 3 C]](CH3) Acridine may also 1:e obtained by passing the vapour of phenylortho-toluidine through a red-hot tube (C. Graebe, Ber., 1884, 17, p. 1 37 0); by condensing diphenylamine with chloroform, in presence of aluminium chloride (0.
Dumas, who regarded them as hydrates of olefiant gas (ethylene); on the other they yielded chloroform, chloral and aldehyde, as well as other compounds of less general interest, and also the method of forming mirrors by depositing silver from a slightly ammoniacal solution by acet aldehyde.
It is a monacid base; the hydrochloride, C 20 H 17 N0 4 HC1, is insoluble in cold alcohol, ether and chloroform, and soluble in 500 parts of water; the acid sulphate, C 20 H 17 N0 4 H 2 SO 4, dissolves in about loo parts of water.
It is only very sparingly soluble in water, but dissolves readily in solutions of the alkaline iodides and in alcohol, ether, carbon bisulphide, chloroform, and many liquid hydrocarbons.
Its solutions in the alkaline iodides and in alcohol and ether are brown in colour, whilst in chloroform and carbon bisulphide the solution is violet.
Chloroform, and all preparations or admixtures containing more than 20% of chloroform.
Various solvents, such as benzene, alcohol and chloroform, will dissolve out the pigment, leaving the plastid colorless.
The now well-known fact that small doses of poisonous substances may act as stimuli to living protoplasm, and that respiratory activity and growth may be accelerated by chloroform, ether and even powerful mineral poisons, such as mercuric chloride, in minimal doses, offers some explanation of these phenomena of hypertrophy, wound fever, and other responses to the presence of irritating agents.
It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.
Germanium dichloride, GeCl2, and germanium chloroform, GeHCl3, have also been described.
Rend., 1891, 112, p. 866) is obtained by mixing a solution of sodium hyposulphite with double its volume of hydrochloric acid, filtering and extracting with chloroform; the extract yielding the variety on evaporation.
Taken internally, ether acts in many respects similarly to alcohol and chloroform, but its stimulant action on the heart is much more marked, being exerted both reflexly from the stomach and directly after its rapid absorption.
It forms crystalline needles soluble in alkalis, chloroform and Zoo parts of water.
Chloroform may be given internally in doses of from one to five drops.