It is occasionally used as a chlorine carrier.
It combines directly with fluorine at Ordinary temperature, and with chlorine, bromine and sulphur on heating.
Cobalt chloride, CoC1 2, in the anhydrous state, is formed by burning the metal in chlorine or by heating the sulphide in a current of the same gas.
The tetrachloride, SC14, is formed by saturating S 2 C1 2 with chlorine at - 22° C. (Michaelis, Ann., 1873, 170, p. 1).
Soc., 1903, p. 420); and by the action of chlorine monoxide on sulphur at low temperature.
It is a brown-black powder soluble in hydrochloric acid, chlorine being simultaneously liberated.
Molybdenum combines with the halogen elements in varying proportions, forming with chlorine a di-, tri-, tetraand penta-chloride, and similar compounds with bromine and iodine.
Molybdenum pentachloride, MoC1 5r is obtained when molybdenum is gently heated in dry chlorine (L.
Phenol is characterized by the readiness with which it forms substitution products; chlorine and bromine, for example, react readily with phenol, forming orthoand parachlorand -bromphenol, and, by further action, trichlorand tribrom-phenol.
By heating the metal with chlorine, germanic chloride, GeCl4, is obtained as a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 86-87° C., it is decomposed by water forming a hydrated germanium dioxide.
It combines directly with chlorine to form sulphuryl chloride and also with many metallic peroxides, converting them into sulphates.
Solutions of persulphates in the cold give no precipitate with barium chloride, but when warmed barium sulphate is precipitated with simultaneous liberation of chlorine: K 2 S 2 0 8 + BaC1 2 = BaSO 4 + K 2 SO 4 + C1 2.
In contact with chlorine monoxide it forms carbonyl chloride and thionyl chloride (P. Schiitzenberger, Ber., 1869, 2, p. 219).
The sesquichloride, Ru 2 C1 6, is formed when a mixture of chlorine and carbon monoxide is passed over finely divided ruthenium heated to 350° C. (Joly, Comptes rendus, 1892, 114, p. 291).
The following, however, are negative towards the remaining elements which are more or less positive:-Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium.
For example, compounds of oxygen are oxides, of chlorine, chlorides, and so on.
Boron chloride BC1 3 results when amorphous boron is heated in chlorine gas, or more readily, on passing a stream of chlorine over a heated mixture of boron trioxide and charcoal, the volatile product being condensed in a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture.
Sulphur chloride, S2C12, is obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride from carbon bisulphide and chlorine, and may also be prepared on the small scale by distilling sulphur in a chlorine gas, or by the action of sulphur on sulphuryl chloride in the presence of aluminium chloride (0.
The per-ruthenate, KRuO 4, formed by the action of chlorine on the ruthenate, or of alkalis on the peroxide at 50° C., is a black crystalline solid which is stable in dry air but decomposes when heated strongly.
For example, one volume of oxygen combined with two of hydrogen to form two volumes of steam, three volumes of hydrogen combined with one of nitrogen to give two volumes of ammonia, one volume of hydrogen combined with one of chlorine to give two volumes of hydrochloric acid.
Silver chloride, for example, in whatever manner it may be prepared, invariably consists of chlorine and silver in the proportions by weight of 35'45 parts of the former and 107.93 of the latter.
For instance, 35'45 parts of chlorine and 79.96 parts of bromine combine with 107.93 parts of silver; and when chlorine and bromine unite it is in the proportion of 35'45 parts of the former to 79.96 parts of the latter.
Iodine unites with silver in the proportion of 126.97 parts to 107.93 parts of the latter, but it combines with chlorine in two proportions, viz.
Thus the chlorine oxyacids enumerated above form salts named respectively hypochlorites, chlorites, chlorates and perchlorates.
Again, when tungsten hexachloride is converted into vapour it is decomposed into chlorine and a pentachloride, having a normal vapour density, but as in the majority of its compounds tungsten acts as a hexad, we apparently must regard its pentachloride as a compound in which an odd number of free affinities are disengaged.
The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be cited as examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions very commonly are, by equations which merely express the relative weights of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of the products, thus Cl = HC1 Hydrogen.
Thus, in the production of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from hydrogen and bromine, however, only 8440 caloriesare developed; and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and iodine 6040 calories are absorbed.
This difference in behaviour of the three elements, chlorine, bromine and iodine, which in many respects exhibit considerable resemblance, may be explained in the following manner.
We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.
Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, and removes hydrogen from hydrogenized bodies, far more readily than bromine; and hydrochloric acid is a far more stable substance than hydrobromic acid, hydriodic acid being greatly inferior even to hydrobromic acid in stability.
The chemical analogy of this substance to chlorine was quickly perceived, especially after its investigation by Davy and Gay Lussac. Cyanogen, a compound which in combination behaved very similarly to chlorine and iodine, was isolated in 1815 by Gay Lussac. This discovery of the first of the then-styled " compound radicals " exerted great influence on the prevailing views of chemical composition.
Hydrochloric acid was carefully investigated at about this time by Davy, Faraday and Gay Lussac, its composition and the elementary nature of chlorine being thereby established.
Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigating its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites led him to conclude that " bleaching-powder " or " chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypochlorite, with a little calcium hydrate.
Serullas and Roscoe; Davy and Stadion investigated chlorine peroxide, formed by treating potassium chlorate with sulphuric acid.
Thus from the acid-amides, which we have seen to be closely related to the acids themselves, we obtain, by replacing the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine, the acidamido-chlorides, R CC1 2 NH 2, from which are derived the imido-chlorides, R CC1:NH, by loss of one molecule of hydrochloric acid.
By replacing the chlorine in the imido-chloride by an oxyalkyl group we obtain the imido-ethers, R C(OR') :NH; and by an amino group, the amidines, R C(NH 2): NH.
The action of chlorine upon diand tri-oxybenzenes has been carefully investigated by Th.
Thus the equation Cl 2 -1-2KI, Aq=2KC1, Aq+12+52400 cal., or (C12) +2KI, Aq =2KC1, Aq+-I-52400 cal., would express that when gaseous chlorine acts on a solution of potassium iodide, with separation of solid iodine, 52400 calories are evolved.
Held synthesized the acid from ethyl chlor-acetoacetate (from chlorine and acetoacetic ester) by heating with potassium cyanide and saponifying the resulting nitrile.
The residue is then fused with caustic potash and nitre, dissolved in water, saturated with chlorine and distilled on the water-bath in a current of chlorine.
The peroxide, Ru04, is formed when a solution of potassium ruthenate is decomposed by chlorine, or by oxidizing ruthenium compounds with potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, or with potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid.
The elements are usually divided into two classes, the metallic and the non-metallic elements; the following are classed as non-metals, and the remainder as metals: Of these hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, neon, krypton, xenon and helium are gases, bromine is a liquid, and the remainder are solids.
It is frequently used as an "antichlor," since in presence of water it has the power of converting chlorine into hydrochloric acid: SO 2 + C12 + 2H 2 0 = 2HC1 + H 2 SO 4.