Silver has been discovered in all the states, either alone or in the form of sulphides, antimonial and arsenical ores, chloride, bromide,.
Or by electrolysing the double chloride of yttrium and sodium.
It may be obtained in the spongy form by igniting iridium ammonium chloride, and this variety of the metal readily oxidizes when heated in air.
Iridium sesquioxide, Ir 2 0 3, is obtained when potassium iridium chloride is heated with sodium or potassium carbonates, in a stream of carbon dioxide.
Stas carried out such experiments on the composition of silver chloride and of ammonium chloride, but he never found a variation of one part in 10,000 in the composition of the substances.
Metallic cobalt may be obtained by reduction of the oxide or chloride in a current of hydrogen at a red heat, or by heating the oxalate, under a layer of powdered glass.
Cobalt chloride, CoC1 2, in the anhydrous state, is formed by burning the metal in chlorine or by heating the sulphide in a current of the same gas.
It dissolves easily in water, forming the hydrated chloride, CoC12.6H20, which may also be prepared by dissolving the hydroxide or carbonate in hydrochloric acid.
By the addition of excess of ammonia to a cobalt chloride solution in absence of air, a greenishblue precipitate is obtained which, on heating, dissolves in the solution, giving a rose-red liquid.
The ammonium cobalto-cobaltisulphite is prepared by saturating an air-oxidized ammoniacal solution of cobaltous chloride with sulphur dioxide.
In Norwood and Rogers's process a thin coating of tin is applied to the iron before it is dipped in the zinc, by putting the plates between layers of granulated tin in a wooden tank containing a dilute solution of stannous chloride, when tin is deposited on them by galvanic action.
CN, may be prepared by the action of silver cyanide on acetyl chloride; or of acetyl chloride on nitrosoacetone (L.
Boron chloride BC1 3 results when amorphous boron is heated in chlorine gas, or more readily, on passing a stream of chlorine over a heated mixture of boron trioxide and charcoal, the volatile product being condensed in a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture.
Boron and iodine do not combine directly, but gaseous hydriodic acid reacts with amorphous boron to form the iodide, BI 31 which can also be obtained by passing boron chloride and hydriodic acid through a red-hot porcelain tube.
It is obtained by the oxidation of orthophenylene diamine with ferric chloride; when a mixture of para-aminodimethylaniline and meta-toluylenediamine is oxidized in the cold, toluylene blue, an indamine, being formed as an intermediate product and passing into the red when boiled; and also by the oxidation of dimethylparaphenylene diamine with metatoluylene diamine.
A dark grey powder by reducing the chloride with potassium,.
Soc., 1905, 27, p. 222), by determinations of the ratio of cadmium chloride to silver chloride, and of the amount of silver required to precipitate cadmium chloride.
Molybdenum combines with the halogen elements in varying proportions, forming with chlorine a di-, tri-, tetraand penta-chloride, and similar compounds with bromine and iodine.
Molybdenum dichloride (MoC1 2) 3 or Cl 4 Mo 3 C1 2 (chlormolybdenum chloride), is prepared (together with some tetrachloride) by heating the trichloride in a stream of carbon dioxide (C. W.
The now well-known fact that small doses of poisonous substances may act as stimuli to living protoplasm, and that respiratory activity and growth may be accelerated by chloroform, ether and even powerful mineral poisons, such as mercuric chloride, in minimal doses, offers some explanation of these phenomena of hypertrophy, wound fever, and other responses to the presence of irritating agents.
The basis of __________ these methods consists in causing a swelling of the cell-wall by means of sulphuric acid or zinc chloride, and ___________________ subseauent staining with Hoffmanns ~a:~
Wurtz); by the action of nitrous acid on aniline; by passing oxygen into boiling benzene containing aluminium chloride (C. Friedel and J.
With ferric chloride it gives a violet coloration, and with bromine water a white precipitate of tribromphenol.
O COC 6 H 5, prepared from phenol and benzoyl chloride, crystallizes in monoclinic prisms, which melt at 68-69° C. and boil at 314° C.
Meta-aminophenol is prepared by reducing metanitrophenol, or by heating resorcin with ammonium chloride and ammonia to 200° C. Dimethyl-meta-aminophenol is prepared by heating meta-aminophenol with methyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid in an autoclave; by sulphonation of dimethylaniline, the sulphonic acid formed being finally fused with potash; or by nitrating dimethylaniline, in the presence of sulphuric acid at 0° C. In the latter case a mixture of nitro-compounds is obtained which can be separated by the addition of sodium carbonate.
By heating the metal with chlorine, germanic chloride, GeCl4, is obtained as a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 86-87° C., it is decomposed by water forming a hydrated germanium dioxide.
It is insoluble in water,' but readily soluble in carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride and oil of turpentine.
Sulphur chloride, S2C12, is obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride from carbon bisulphide and chlorine, and may also be prepared on the small scale by distilling sulphur in a chlorine gas, or by the action of sulphur on sulphuryl chloride in the presence of aluminium chloride (0.
Sulphur chloride dissolves sulphur with great readiness and is consequently used largely for vulcanizing rubber; it also dissolves chlorine.
The chloride SC1 2 according to the investigations of 0.
It combines directly with chlorine to form sulphuryl chloride and also with many metallic peroxides, converting them into sulphates.
Thionyl fluoride, SOF 21 has been obtained as a fuming, gas by decomposing arsenic fluoride with thionyl chloride (Moissan and Lebeau, Corn pt.
Thionyl chloride, SOC1 21 may be obtained by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on sodium sulphite; by the action of sulphur trioxide on sulphur dichloride at 75 -80° C. (Journ.
1 3 2, p. 374), is an exceedingly stable colourless gas at ordinary temperatures, becoming solid at about -120° C. Sulphuryl chloride, SO 2 C1 2, first obtained in 1838 by Regnault (Ann.
It is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at 152-153° C. When heated under pressure it decomposes, forming sulphuric acid, sulphuryl chloride, &c. (Ruff, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 35 0 9).
Disulphuryl chloride, S 2 O 5 C1 2, corresponding to pyrosulphuric acid, is obtained by the action of sulphur trioxide on sulphur dichloride, phosphorus oxychloride, sulphuryl chloride or dry sodium chloride: 650 3- + 2POC1 3 = P 2 O 5 + 3S 2 O 5 C1 2; S2C12+ 5503 = S 2 0 5 C1 2 + 550 2; SO 3 + SO 2 C1 2 = S 2 0 5 C1 2; 2NaC1 + 3SO 3 = S 2 0 5 C1 2 -1 Na 2 SO 4.
Solutions of persulphates in the cold give no precipitate with barium chloride, but when warmed barium sulphate is precipitated with simultaneous liberation of chlorine: K 2 S 2 0 8 + BaC1 2 = BaSO 4 + K 2 SO 4 + C1 2.
They form many double salts and give a dark violet coloration with ferric chloride solution, this colour, however, gradually disappearing on standing, sulphur being precipitated.
Berzelius took 8 grams of copper, converted it into the coloured chloride, and sealed up the whole of this in solution, together with a weighed strip of copper.