In Lingula the shell is composed of alternate layers of chitin and of phosphate of lime.
They yield chitin in place of chondrin or gelatin - as does also the cartilage of the Cephalopod's endoskeleton.
The parapodia of Chaetopoda are never coated with dense chitin, and are, therefore, never converted into jaws; the primitive " head-lobe " or prostomium persists, and frequently carries eyes and sensory tentacles.
While the fundamental constituent is a cellulose in many Mucorini and other Phycomycetes, in others bodies like pectose, callose, &c., commonly occur, and Wisselingh's researches show that chitin, a gluco-proteid common in animals, forms the main constituent in many cases, and is probably deposited directly as such, though, like the other substances, it may be mixed with cellulose.
The cell-wall of the higher plants, it gives usually no react i ons of cellulose, nor is chitin present as in the fungi, but it consists of a proteid substance and is apparently a modification of the general protoplasm.
In its simplest form the exoskeleton of a typical somite is a ring of chitin defined from the rings in front and behind by areas of thinner integument forming moveable joints, and having a pair of appendages articulated to its ventral surface on either side of the middle line.
Very usually (but not in the Onychophora = Peripatus) all the parapodia are plated with chitin secreted by the epidermis, and divided into a series of joints - giving the " arthropodous " or hinged character.
The rigidity of the integument caused by the deposition of dense chitin upon it is intimately connected with the physiological activity and form of all the internal organs, and is undoubtedly correlated with the total disappearance of the circular muscular layer of the body-wall present in Chaetopods.
26) a tendency to group themselves into " retinulae," consisting of five to twelve cells united by vertical deposits of chitin (rhabdoms).
Chitin is not exclusively an ectodermal product, but occurs also in cartilaginous skeletal plates of mesoblastic origin (connective tissue).
The separation of the heavier plates of chitin by grooves of delicate cuticle results in the hinging or jointing of the body and its appendages, and the consequent flexing and extending of the jointed pieces.
In Velella the pneumatophore becomes of complex structure and sends air-tubes, lined by a chitin and resembling tracheae, down into the compact coenosarc, thus evidently serving a respiratory as well as a hydrostatic function.