The old Christian eschatology is set aside; no one has dealt such deadly blows to Chiliasm and Christian apocalypticism as Origen.
The apostolic epistles are equally free from any trace of chiliasm (neither r Cor.
The attribution of a mystic significance to the millennium-period, though perhaps not prominent in that theory of Christian eschatology to which the names Millenarianism and Chiliasm (from Gr.
80) speaks of chiliasm as a necessary part of complete orthodoxy, although he knows Christians who do not accept it.
About the year 260 an Egyptian bishop, Nepos, in a treatise called 'XEyxos 6,XX yoptarCnv, endeavoured to overthrow the Origenistic theology and vindicate chiliasm by exegetical methods.
During this controversy Dionysius became convinced that the victory of mystical theology over "Jewish" chiliasm would never be secure so long as the book of Revelation passed for an apostolic writing and kept its place among the homologoumena of the canon.
In the course of the 4th century it was removed from the Greek canon, and thus the troublesome foundation on which chiliasm might have continued to build was got rid of.
The attempts of Methodius of Tyre at the beginning of the 4th century and Apollinarius of Laodicea about 360 to defend chiliasm and assail the theology of Origen had no result.
For many centuries the Greek Church kept Revelation out of its canon, and consequently chiliasm remained in its grave.
But mysticism and political servility between them gave the deathblow to chiliasm in the Greek Church.
They were very conservative of ancient traditions in general, and hence chiliasm survived amongst them to a later date than in Alexandria or Constantinople.
Now for the moralists chiliasm had a special significance as the one distinguishing feature of the gospel, and the only thing that gave a specifically Christian character to their system.
The earlier fathers, Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Tertullian, believed in chiliasm simply because it was a part of the tradition of the church and because Marcion and the Gnostics would have nothing to do with it.
And, since it had been suppressed, not, as in the East, by mystical speculation, its mightiest antagonist, but by the political church of the hierarchy, we find that wherever chiliasm appears in the middle ages it makes common cause with all enemies of the secularized church.
But, of course, the new chiliasm was not in every respect identical with the old.
How millennarianism nevertheless found its way, with the help of apocalyptic mysticism and Anabaptist influences into the churches of the Reformation, chiefly among the Reformed sects, but afterwards also in the Lutheran Church, how it became incorporated with Pietism, how in more recent times an exceedingly mild type of "academic" chiliasm has been developed from a belief in the verbal inspiration of the Bible, how finally new sects are still springing up here and there with apocalyptic and chiliastic expectations - these are matters which cannot be fully entered upon here.
Revelation was held to teach chiliasm, or the doctrine of the literal reign of moo years.
A broader popular form was given to this expectation in " Chiliasm " - the doctrine of the " Thousand " years' reign 1 of Christ on earth (Rev. xx.
But even Chiliasm - which itself has its subtler and its grosser modifications - is found in early Gentile as well as in early Jewish Christianity.
The Alogi in the 2nd century rejected the Apocalypse on account of its chiliasm, its teaching of a visible reign of Christ on earth for a thousand years.
Both regarded chiliasm with aversion.
CHILIASM (from Gr.