Difference of opinion, therefore, arose as to the interpretation of the protocol, the Argentines insisting that the boundary should run from highest peak to highest peak, the Chileans that it should follow the highest points of the watershed.
Although the Chileans professed dissatisfaction, no active opposition was raised, and the terms were duly ratified.
It was captured by the Chileans in 1883, near the close of the war between Chile and Peru.
Again, in 1880, the city was bombarded by the Chileans, though it was almost defenceless, and fell into the possession of the invaders after the capture of Lima in the following year.
It was occupied by the Chileans in 1879 in the war between Chile and Peru, and was ceded to Chile by the treaty of the 10th of October 1883.
Its anchorage was used by Lord Cochrane in 1820 during his attacks on Callao; it was the landing-place of an invading Chilean army in 1838; it was bombarded by the Chileans in 1880; and in 1883 it was the meeting-place of the Chilean and Peruvian commissioners who drew up the treaty of Ancon, which ended the war between Chile and Peru.
After the evacuation of Lima by the Chileans Palma devoted his life to the recovery of his scattered books and the acquisition of new collections, and he had the satisfaction before his death of re-opening the library, which had obtained about 30,000 volumes, or three-fourths of the number on its shelves before the Chilean invasion.
The industry was nearly ruined by the Chileans in 1880, but its recovery soon followed the termination of the war and the output has been steadily increasing.
It convoyed an army of Argentine troops, with some Chileans, under the command of the Argentine general, San Martin, which landed on the coast of Peru in September 1820.
In 1817 he accepted the invitation of the Chileans, who were then in revolt against Spain, to take command of their naval forces, and remaining in their service until 1822 contributed largely to their success.
Arica was captured, looted and burned by the Chileans in 1880, and in accordance with the terms of the treaty of Ancon (1883) should have been returned to Peru in 1894, but this was not done.
But his pretensions were ludicrous; he was quickly captured by the Chileans and sent back to France (1862) as a madman; and though he made one more abortive effort in 1874 to recover his "kingdom," and occupied his pen in magnifying his achievements, nobody took him seriously except a few of the deluded Indians.
After the overthrow of the Spanish supremacy in Peru had freed the Chileans from fear of attack, an agitation set in for constitutional government.
He upheld American rights in Samoa, pursued a vigorous diplomacy with Italy over the lynching of eleven Italians, all except three of them American naturalized citizens, in New Orleans on the 14th of May 1891, held a firm attitude during the strained relations between the United States and Chile (growing largely out of the killing and wounding of American sailors of the U.S. ship "Baltimore" by Chileans in Valparaiso on the 16th of October 1891), and carried on with Great Britain a resolute controversy over the seal fisheries of Bering Sea, - a difference afterwards settled by arbitration.
Although Chileans claim a comparatively small admixture with the native races, it is estimated that the whites and creoles of white extraction do not exceed 30 to 40% of the population, while the mestizos form fully 60%.
The prosperity of Chile is intimately connected with her ocean-going trade, and no elaborate system of national railway lines and domestic manufactures can ever change this relationship. These conditions should have developed a large merchant marine, but the Chileans are not traders and are sailors only in a military sense.
Notwithstanding the opposition of some political elements to the Church, the Chileans themselves may all be classed as Roman Catholics.
It was this constant warfare with the Indians and the necessity for hard continuous work, owing to the lack of precious metals in Chile, that no doubt helped to produce in the settlers the strength and hardihood of character that distinguishes the Chileans among South American races.
Till the 18th century ships were not allowed to sail round Cape Horn, so that the Chileans had to trade indirectly through Peru and the Argentine.
As soon as the necessity for establishing a stable government arose the lack of training in self-government among the Chileans became painfully obvious.
The blockade of their ports and the bombardment of Valparaiso by a Spanish squadron impressed the Chileans with the necessity of possessing an adequate fleet to defend their long coast-line; and it was under President Errazuriz that the ships were obtained and the officers trained that did such good service in the great war with Peru.
After severe fighting for some four hours the Chileans again proved victorious, and drove the Peruvians from the second line of defence back upon the city of Lima.
Lima was now at the mercy of the Chileans, and on the 17th of January a division of 4000 men of all arms, under the command of General Cornelio Saavedra, was sent forward to occupy the Peruvian capital and restore order within the town limits.
So matters continued - the Chileans administering on the seaboard and in the principal towns, the Peruvians maintaining a guerilla warfare in the mountainous districts of the interior.
The treaties of 1881, 1893 and 1895 left doubts in the minds of both Chileans and Argentines as to the position of the frontier line.
The treaty made in 1896 with the Argentine government, referring to the arbitration of disputed points concerning the boundary, became practically for the moment a dead letter, and both Argentines and Chileans began to talk openly of an appeal to arms to settle the matter once for all.
The superiority of the Chileans at sea, though checked for some time by the heroic gallantry of the Peruvians, soon enabled them to land a sufficient number of troops to meet the allied forces which had concentrated at Arica and other points in the south.
Severe fighting took place before Tarapaca surrendered, but the end of 1879 saw the Chileans in complete possession of the province.
They were followed almost immediately by the surrender of Lima and Callao, which left the Chileans practically masters of Peru.
Bolivia was in no position to venture upon hostilities or to compel the Chileans to make concessions, and the final settlement of the boundary dispute between Argentina and Chile deprived the Bolivians of the hope of obtaining the support of the Argentines.
It suffered little in the War of Independence, but was occupied and plundered by the Chileans in 1882.