On the Chilean frontier.
(British), the Compania Sud-America (Chilean), the Kosmos and Roland lines (German), the Merchants line (New York), and a Japanese line from the ports of Japan and China.
The first question which he had to handle was the Chilean boundary dispute.
The loss of their political independence has been followed by that of the greater part of their territory, which has been divided up into the Chilean provinces of Arauco, Bio-bio, Malleco and Cautin, and the Indians, much reduced in number, now live in the wooded recesses of the three provinces last named.
NEUQUEN, an inland territory of Argentina on the Chilean frontier, between the Colorado and Limay rivers, with the province of Mendoza on the N.
The principal industry is the raising of stock for the Chilean markets, as there is little cultivation.
The population is concentrated in a few small towns on the rivers and in some colonies, established by the national government to check Chilean invasions, in the fertile districts of the Andes.
A majority of the population, however, is of Chilean origin.
Chinchillas live in burrows, and these subterranean dwellings undermine the ground in some parts of the Chilean Andes to such an extent as to cause danger to travellers on horseback.
At the outbreak of the war with Chile he was vice-director of the national library at Lima, which was wantonly pillaged by the Chilean forces.
After the evacuation of Lima by the Chileans Palma devoted his life to the recovery of his scattered books and the acquisition of new collections, and he had the satisfaction before his death of re-opening the library, which had obtained about 30,000 volumes, or three-fourths of the number on its shelves before the Chilean invasion.
After the Chilean War the disorders fomented by the rival military officers led to a desire to place the administration of public affairs under civilian control.
15) proved the Chilean superiority, and put Lima at their mercy though desultory fighting was maintained by the remnants of the Peruvian army in the interior, under direction of General Caceres.
The negotiations between this nominal administration and the Chilean authorities for a treaty of peace proved futile, the Chilean occupation of Lima and the Peruvian seaboard continuing uninterruptedly until 1883.
In that year Admiral Lynch, who had replaced General Baquedano in command of the Chilean forces after the taking of Lima, sent an expedition against the Peruvians under General Caceres, and defeated the latter in the month of August.
The Chilean authorities now began preparations for the evacuation of Lima, and to enable this measure to be effected a Peruvian administration was organized with the support of the Chileans.
The Chilean army of occupation was withdrawn from Lima on the 22nd of October 1883, but a strong force was maintained at Chorrillos until July 1884, when the terms of the treaty were finally approved.
The Peruvians in the interior refused to recognize President Iglesias, and at once began active operations to overthrow his authority on the final departure of the Chilean troops.
The question hinged to a great extent on the qualification necessary for the inhabitants to vote, in the event of a plebiscite being called to decide whether Chilean ownership was to be finally established or the provinces were to revert to Peruvian sovereignty.
The agreement between Chile and Bolivia, by which the disputed provinces were to be handed over to the latter country if Chilean possession was recognized, was also a stumbling-block, a strong feeling existed among Peruvians against this proceeding.
Pastoral interests are largely in feeding cattle for the Chilean markets, for which large areas of alfalfa are grown in the irrigated valleys of the Andes.
Either (I) by the Mexican crusher or arrastra, in which the grinding is effected upon a bed of stone, over which heavy blocks of stone attached to cross arms are dragged by the rotation of the arms about a central spindle, or (2) by the Chilean mill or trapiche, also known as the edge-runner, where the grinding stones roll upon the floor, at the same time turning about a central upright - contrivances which are mainly used for the preparation of silver ores; but by far the largest proportion of the gold quartz of California, Australia and Africa is reduced by (3) the stamp mill, which is similar in principle to that used in Europe for the preparation of tin and other ores.
(from Chile and hue, " part of Chile"), a province of southern Chile, and also the name of a large island off the Chilean coast forming part of the province.
The island of Chiloe, which lies immediately south of the province of Llanquihue, is a continuation of the western Chilean formation, the coast range appearing in the mountainous range of western Chiloe and the islands extending south along the coast.
COBIJA, or Puerto La Mar (the official title given to it by the Bolivian government), a port and town of the Chilean province of Antofagasta, about Boo m.
On the southern side the ports of San Jose, Champerico and Ocos are visited by the Pacific mail steamers, by the vessels of a Hamburg company and by those of the South American (Chilean) and the Pacific Steam Navigation Companies.
The Chilean government has established its chief naval depot here.
ARICA (SAN MARCOS DE ARICA), a town and port of the Chilean-governed province of Tacna, situated in 18° 28' 08" S.
Aconaemys is an allied Chilean genus in which the enamel-folds meet across the molars.
About the only indigenous fruit-bearing plants are the Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chilensis) and the ohelo berry (Vaccinium reticulatum), both of which grow at high elevations on Hawaii and Maui.
ANTOFAGASTA, a town and port of northern Chile and capital of the Chilean province of the same name, situated about 768 m.
The town was founded in 1870 as a shipping port for the recently discovered silver mines of that vicinity, and belonged to Bolivia until 1879, when it was occupied by a Chilean military force.
Of Santiago by the Chilean Central railway, which crosses the province.
They still preserve their warlike nature, though in 1870 they formally recognized Chilean rule.
BERNARDO O'HIGGINS (1778-1842), one of the foremost leaders in the Chilean struggle for independence and head of the first permanent national government, was a natural son of the Irishman Ambrosio O'Higgins, governor of Chile (1788-1796), and was born at Chillan on the 20th of August 1778.
The rivalry that ensued, in spite of O'Higgins's generous offer to serve under Carrera, eventually resulted in O'Higgins being isolated and overwhelmed with the bulk of the Chilean forces at Rancagua in 1814.
By the Chilean Central railway, and the river Maule gives access to the small port of Constitucion, at its mouth.
There is one railway in the province, running from the city of Tacna to Arica, and in 1910 another from Arica to La Paz, Bolivia, was under construction by the Chilean government.
Tacna was captured by a Chilean force under General Baquedano on the 27th of May 1880.
At the termination of the period Peru wished the plebiscite to be left to the original population, while Chile wanted it to include the large number of Chilean labourers sent into the province.
This arbitrary retention of Tacna and Arica, which became the province of Tacna under Chilean administration, removed the frontier still farther north, to the river Sama, which separates that province from the remaining part of the Peruvian department of Moquegua.
The Andes, however, present an unbroken barrier on the east, except at a few points in the south where the general elevation is not over 5000 to 6000 ft., and where some of the Chilean rivers, as the Palena and Las Heras, have their sources on its eastern side.
From the 52nd to about the 31st parallel this great mountain system, known locally as the Cordillera de los Andes, apparently consists of a single chain, though in reality it includes short lateral ranges at several points; continuing northward several parallel ranges appear on the Argentine side and one on the Chilean side which are ultimately merged in the great Bolivian plateau.
The Chilean lateral range, which extends from the 29th to the 19th parallels, traverses an elevated desert region and possesses several noteworthy peaks, among which are Cerro Bolson, 16,017 ft., and Cerro Dona Ines, 16,706 ft.
The culminating point of the Chilean Andes is Aconcagua, which rises to a height of 23, 0 97 ft.
The Chilean Andes between Tacna and Valdivia are crossed by 24 passes, the majority of them at elevations exceeding 10,000 ft.
Arica has been three times destroyed by tidal waves, and other small towns of the north Chilean coast have suffered similar disasters.
A study of Chilean earthquake phenomena, however, would probably lead to a division of southern Chile into two or more distinct earthquake areas.
Much nearer the Chilean coast (396 m.), lying between the 33rd and 34th parallels, are the three islands of the Juan Fernandez group, and rising apparently from the same submerged plateau about 500 m.
There are three harbours on this bay, El Tome, Penco and Talcahuano (q.v.), the last being the largest and best-protected port on the inhabited part of the Chilean coast.
At the north end of the first is the Reloncavi, a large and nearly landlocked bay, on which stands Puerto Montt, the southern terminus of the Chilean central railway.
Of the Chilean coast contain numerous bays and inlets affording safe harbours, but the mainland and islands are uninhabited and the climate inhospitable.
The central part of this group of estuaries is called Worsley Sound, and the last and farthest inland of its arms is Last Hope Inlet (Ultima Esperanza), on which is situated the Chilean agricultural colony of Puerto Consuelo.
In length, lie wholly within Chilean territory.
The question of the Puna de Atacama was referred to a tribunal composed of the United States minister to Argentina and of one Argentine and one Chilean delegate; that of the southern frontier in Patagonia to the British crown.
Its anchorage was used by Lord Cochrane in 1820 during his attacks on Callao; it was the landing-place of an invading Chilean army in 1838; it was bombarded by the Chileans in 1880; and in 1883 it was the meeting-place of the Chilean and Peruvian commissioners who drew up the treaty of Ancon, which ended the war between Chile and Peru.
The period of ten years originally agreed upon for the Chilean occupation of these provinces expired in 1894.