The Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians, however, remained the faithful allies of the whites, and volunteers from Georgia, South Carolina and Tennessee, and later United States troops, marched to the rescue of the threatened settlements.
The sassafras, persimmon, wild cherry and Chickasaw plum are found in all parts of the state.
The schools are supported by a poll-tax, by general appropriations, by local levies, and by the Chickasaw school fund.
It is used for the support of the schools in the old Chickasaw territory in the northern part of the state.
During the wild era of speculation which followed (especially in 1832 - upon the opening of the Chickasaw Cession to settlement) a large number of banks and railroad corporations with banking privileges were chartered.
Two victories (Iuka and Corinth) were won in the autumn of 1862, but the credit of both fell to Rosecrans, who commanded in the field, and the nadir of Grant's military fortunes was reached when the first advance on Vicksburg, planned on an unsound basis, and complicated by a series of political intrigues (which had also caused the adoption of the original scheme), collapsed after the minor reverses of Holly Springs and Chickasaw Bayou (December 1862).
He suffered defeat at Chickasaw Bayou, but the capture of Fort Hindman, near Arkansas Post, compensated to some extent for the Vicksburg failure.
Among wild fruit-trees are the persimmon and Chickasaw plum; grape-vines and a large variety of berry-bushes grow wild and in abundance.
- Chickasaw Bayou and Fredericksburg ended the Federal initiative in the west and the east; the Army of the Cumberland under Rosecrans alone could claim a victory.
Ardmore is the market-town and distributing point for the surrounding agricultural region, which is the home of a large part of the Chickasaw and Choctaw nations.
The city is finely situated on the fourth Chickasaw Bluffs, more than 40 ft.
Chickasaw Bluffs were named from the Chickasaw Indians, who were in possession when white men first came to the vicinity.
The "five tribes" were the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole Indians.
Father Marquette in his voyage down the Mississippi camped upon the western border, and La Salle built Fort Prud'homme upon the Chickasaw Bluffs, probably on the site of Memphis, in 1682, but it was abandoned, then rebuilt, and again abandoned.