On Rennes Island in the fjord, over against the town, there is a Cheviot sheep-breeding farm under government auspices.
In particular, the Roman "North Road" which ran from York through Corbridge and over Cheviot to Newstead near Melrose, and thence to the Wall of Pius, and which has largely been in use ever since Roman times, is now not unfrequently called Watling Street, though there is no old authority for it and throughout the middle ages the section of the road between the Tyne and the Forth was called Dere Street.
The only exception was in the case of the slowly-maturing Cheviot and mountain breeds, for which the second class was for wether sheep of any age above twelve months.
Down Sheep Breeders' Association, the Shropshire Sheep Breeders' Association and Flock Book Society, the Southdown Sheep Society, the Suffolk Sheep Society, the Border Leicester Sheep Breeders' Society, the Wensleydale Longwool Sheep Breeders' Association and Flock Book Society, the Incorporated Wensleydale Blue-faced Sheep Breeders' Association and Flock Book Society, the Kent Sheep Breeders' Association, the Devon Longwool Sheep Breeders' Society, the Dorset Horn Sheep Breeders' Association, the Cheviot Sheep Society and the Roscommon Sheep Breeders' Association.
Shorthorns and polled Angus are the commonest breeds of cattle; the sheep are mostly Cheviots and a Cheviot-Leicester cross, but the native sheep are still reared in considerable numbers in Hoy and South Ronaldshay; pigs are also kept on several of the islands, and the horses - as a rule hardy, active and small, though larger than the famous Shetland ponies - are very numerous, but mainly employed in connexion with agricultural work.
The cartularies of the church and the town of Die (1868), of the abbey of St Andre le-Bas at Vienne (1869),(1869), of the abbey of Notre Dame at Bonnevaux in the diocese of Vienne (1889), of the abbey of St Chaffre at Le Monestier (1884), the Cheviot Hills inventories and several collections of archives of the dauphins of Viennais, and a Bibliotheque liturgique in six volumes (1893-1897), the third and fourth volumes of which constitute the Repertorium hymnologicum, containing more than 20,000 articles.
What frontier was adopted after Agricola's departure, whether Tweed or Cheviot or other, is unknown.
One, known in medieval times as Dere Street and misnamed Watling Street by modern antiquaries, ran from Corbridge on the Tyne past Otterburn, crossed Cheviot near Makendon Camps, and passed by an important fort at Newstead near Melrose, and another at Inveresk (outside of Edinburgh), to the eastern end of the wall.
The Romans lost everything beyond Cheviot, and perhaps even more.
The home government, whether averse to expensive conquests of barren hills, or afraid of a victorious general, abruptly recalled Agricola, and his northern conquests - all beyond the Tweed, if not all beyond Cheviot - were abandoned.
But the conquest was stubbornly disputed, and after several risings, the land north of Cheviot seems to have been lost about A.D.
It is separated from England by the Solway Firth, the Sark, Scotsdyke (an old embankment in 55°3' N., connecting the Sark with the Esk), the Esk (for one mile), the Liddel, the Kershope, the Cheviot Hills, the Tweed and a small area known as the " liberties " of Berwick.
The sources of the Ettrick, Teviot and Jed, into the Cheviot Hills.
The Lower, with its abundant intercalated lavas and tuffs, extends continuously as a broad belt along the northern margin of the Central Plain, reappears in detached tracts along the southern border, is found again on the south side of the Uplands in Berwickshire and the Cheviot Hills, occupies a tract of Lorne (Oban and the vicinity) in Argyllshire, and on the north side of the Highlands underlies most of the low ground on both sides of the Moray Firth, stretches across Caithness and through nearly the whole of the Orkney Islands, and is prolonged into Shetland.
The North Tyne rises in the Cheviot Hills, at their south-western extremity, near the Scottish border.
The short land-frontier of England with Scotland (its length is only loo m.) is in great measure a physical boundary, as considerable lengths of it are formed on the east side by the river Tweed, and on the west by Kershope Burn, Liddel Water, and the river Sark; while for the rest it follows pretty closely the summit of the Cheviot Hills, whose highest point is the Cheviot (2676 ft.).
A narrow but well-marked pass or depression, known as the Tyne Gap, is taken to separate the Cheviot system from the Pennine Chain, which is properly to be described as a wide tract of hillcountry, extending through two degrees of latitude, on an axis from N.
Thus in the north-east the coast is generally of no great elevation, but the foothills of the Cheviot and Pennine systems approach it closely.
In the north the Pennine region is joined to the Southern Uplands of Scotland by the Cheviot Hills, a mass of granite and Old Red Sandstone; and the northern part is largely traversed by dykes of contemporary volcanic or intrusive rock.
The mountain breeds include the Cheviot, Scotch Black-face, Lonk, Rough Swaledale, Derbyshire Gritstone, Penistone, Limestone, Herdwick, Dartmoor, Exmoor and Welsh Mountain.
These breeds are all English, except the Border Leicester, Cheviot and Scotch Black-face, which belong to Scotland; the Welsh Mountain, which belongs to Wales; and the Roscommon, which is Irish.
The majority of the true mountain breeds are horned, the males only in the cases of Cheviot, Herdwick, Penistone and Welsh, though most Cheviot and many Herdwick rams are hornless.
The white-faced breeds include the Leicester, Border Leicester, Lincoln, Kentish, Cheviot, Ryeland, Devon Longwool, South Devon, Dorset and Somerset Horn, Limestone, Penistone, Exmoor and Roscommon.
The other, bred on the Scottish Borders, with an early admixture of Cheviot blood, acquired the name of Border Leicester.
It carried off the highest honours in the dressed carcass competition at Chicago in 1903, and the championship in the "block test" at Smithfield Club Show was won for the five years1902-1906by Suffolks or Suffolk cross lambs from big-framed Cheviot ewes.
To the Cheviot Hills, the watershed of which for 35 m.
In 1907, the championship went to a Cheviot wether, but in the two pure, short-woolled classes all the ten awards were secured by Suffolks, and in the two cross-bred wether classes nine of the ten awards went to a Suffolk cross.
The Cheviot takes its name from the range of hills stretching along the boundary between England and Scotland, on both sides of which the breed now extends, though larger types are produced in East Lothian and in Sutherlandshire.
The Cheviot is a hardy sheep with straight wool, of moderate length and very close-set, whilst wiry white hair covers the face and legs.
Put to the Border Leicester ram the Cheviot ewe produces the Half-bred, which as a breeding ewe is unsurpassed as a rent-paying, arableland sheep.
The rams sometimes have small, curved, wide horns like those of the Cheviot ram.
Cheviot and cross-bred lambs are marked, and the males are castrated, towards the end of May.