Mooney, "The Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees," (7th Rept.
Nearly onefourth of the Indians are Cherokees, who occupy, for the most part, the Qualla Reservation in Swain and Jackson counties, not far from the south-western extremity of the state.
The Cherokees have no ambition to accumulate property, but both they and the Croatans have been generally peaceable and many of them send their children to school - for the Croatans the state provides separate schools.
In 1763 the Kentucky country was claimed by the Cherokees as a part of their hunting grounds, by the Six Nations (Iroquois) as a part of their western conquests, and by Virginia as a part of the territory granted to her by her charter of 1609, although it was actually inhabited only by a few Chickasaws near the Mississippi river and by a small tribe of Shawnees in the north, opposite what is now Portsmouth, Ohio.
During the colonial period several treaties with Indians were made at Augusta; by the most important, that of 1763, the Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, Cherokees and Catawbas agreed (in a meeting with the governors of North and South Carolina, Virginia and Georgia) to the terms of the treaty of Paris.
By the treaty of Fort Jackson (9th of August 1814) the Creeks ceded their claims to about one-half of the present state; and cessions by the Cherokees, Chickasaws and Choctaws in 1816 left only about one-fourth of Alabama to the Indians.
Adams treated the Cherokees with the courtesy due to a sovereign nation, and held that the United States had done all that was required to meet the obligation assumed in 1802.
Then President Jackson, holding that Georgia was in the right on the Indian question, informed the Cherokees that their only alternative to submission to Georgia was emigration.
Thereupon the chiefs resorted to the United States Supreme Court, which in 1832 declared that the Cherokees formed a distinct community " in which the laws of Georgia have no force," and annulled the decision of a Georgia court that had extended its jurisdiction into the Cherokee country (Worcester v.
This was contrary to the rights of the Cherokees under a federal treaty, and the Supreme Court consequently declared the act void (1832).
The others are the remnants of a number of tribes collected here from various parts of the country: Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees, Creeks, Seminoles, Osages, Kaws, Poncas, Otoes, Cheyennes, Iowas, Kickapoos, Sauk and Foxes, Sioux, Miamis, Shawnees, Pawnees, Ottawas and several others.
Section of Texas the territory comprising the present state of Oklahoma was set apart by Congress in 1834, under the name of Indian Territory, for the possession of the five southern tribes (Cherokees, Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws and Chickasaws) and the Quapaw Agency.
Early in 1809 some Cherokees in the south-eastern states made known to President Jefferson their desire to remove to hunting grounds W.
Eastern Tennessee was recognized as a common hunting ground by the Cherokees, Creeks, Miamis and other Indian tribes, and the Iroquois of New York also claimed a considerable portion by right of conquest.
There had been wars with the Spanish in 1686, 1702-04, 1740, with the Spanish and French in 1706, with pirates in 1718, with the Yemassee Indians in 1715 and the Cherokees in 1760-61, and a slave uprising in 1739.
By these treaties, negotiated in 1866, the Cherokees gave the United States permission to settle other Indians on what was approximately the western half of their domain; the Seminoles, to whom the Creeks in 1855 had granted as their portion the strip between the Canadian river and its North Fork, ceded all of theirs, and the Creeks, Choctaws and Chickasaws ceded the western half of theirs back to the United States for occupancy by freedmen or other Indians.
Portion of the lands thus placed at its disposal by the Cherokees and the Creeks the Federal government within the next seventeen years made a number of small grants as follows: to the Seminoles in 1866, to the Sauk and Foxes in 1867, to the Osages, Kansas, Pottawatomies, Absentee Shawnees and Wichitas in 1871-1872, to the Pawnees in 1876, to the Poncas and Nez Perces in 1878, to the Otoes and Missouris in 1881, and to the Iowas and Kickapoos in 1883; in the S.W.