The monuments discovered there, although only those in hard stone have survived, are more important than at any other site in the Delta except Tanis and cover a wider range, commencing with Khufu (Cheops) and continuing to the thirtieth dynasty.
CHEOPS, in Herodotus, the name of the king who built the Great Pyramid in Egypt.
Cheops reigned 50 years and was succeeded by his brother, Chephren, who reigned 56 years and built the second pyramid.
At length Mycerinus, son of Cheops and successor of Chephren, reopened the temples and, although he built the Third Pyramid, allowed the oppressed people to return to their proper occupations.
Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus are historical personages of the fourth Egyptian dynasty, in correct order, and they built the three pyramids attributed to them here.
Rhampsinitus, the predecessor of Cheops, appears to represent Rameses III.
In Egyptian the name of Cheops (Chemmisor Chembisin Diodorus Siculus, Suphis in Manetho) is spelt Hwfw (Khufu), but the pronunciation, in late times perhaps Khoouf, is uncertain.
Dedicated statues to his predecessors of the Vth Dynasty who had probably showed their devotion to Ammon in a substantial manner, and Cheops of the IVth Dynasty is named in it.
In the XVIIIth, eventually received the honors of deification; and Hardadf under Cheops of the IVth Dynasty was little behind these two in the estimation of posterity.
(A) The statuette of Khufu or Cheops (Plate III.
In the pyramid of Cheops the blocks were all faced before building; but the later granite temple of Chephren and the pyramid of Mycerinus (Menkaura, Menkeure) show a system of building with an excess of a few inches left rough on the outer surface, which was dressed away when in position (P.T.
But, immediately after, Cheops improved on this with a variation of less than 6 in.
Beyond these tombs, and the temples attached to them, there are very few fixed monuments; of Cheops and Pepi I.
Pottery models of offerings are found in the ashes, and these were probably the substitutes for sacrifices decreed by Cheops (Khufu) in his temple reforms. A great clearance of temple offerings was made now, or earlier, and a chamber full of them has yielded the fine ivory carvings and the glazed figures and tiles which show the splendid work of the Ist dynasty.
The noble statuette of Cheops in ivory, found in the stone chamber of the temple, gives the only portrait of this greatest ruler.