But it is not so now; the names in ordinary use being King-cheng or King-tu, both signifying "capital."
Almost all the traffic is conveyed through Hu-nan by water-ways, which lead northward to Han-kow on the Yangtsze Kiang, and Fan-cheng on the Han River, eastward to Fu-kien, southward to Kwang-tung and Kwang-si and westward to Sze-ch'uen.
Under the RussoJapanese treaty of August 1905, after the war, supplemented by a convention between Japan and China concluded in December of the same year, Japan took over the line from Port Arthur as far as Kwang-cheng-tsze, now known as the Southern Manchurian railway (508 m.).
Branches were promoted (a) from Mukden to Antung on the Yalu, to connect with the Korean system, and (b) from Kwang-cheng-tsze to Kirin.
Miyagawa soon began to cast about for a better inspiration, and found it in Adoption of the monochromes and polychromes of the Chinese Chinese Kang-hsi and Yung-cheng kilns.
But his cladon certainly equals the more modern Chinese examples from the K~ng-hsi and Yun~-cheng kilns.
Fresh attempts were made by subordinates to form rearguards, but Zasulich made no stand even at Fenghwang-cheng, and the Japanese occupied that town unopposed on the 5th of May.
The latter therefore had to stand fast in the face of the Russian Eastern Detachment, which was three days' march at most from Feng-hwang-cheng and could be supported in three more days by Kuropatkin's main body, whereas the pressure of Oku's advance would not begin to be felt by the Russian Southern Detachment until the twelfth day at earliest.
But on the 6th of May he learned that the Japanese 1st Army had again halted at Fenghwang-cheng and that the 2nd Army was disembarking at Pitszewo, and he resumed (though less confidently) his original idea.
On the other side the ist Army was at Feng-hwang-cheng with one brigade detached on the roads on either hand, the left being therefore in front of the Takushan division and facing the Fenshuiling.
Kuroki entrenched himself carefully about Feng-hwang-cheng, intending, if attacked by the Russian main army, to defend to the last extremity the ground and the prestige gained on the 1st of May.
The 1st Army, after its long halt at Feng-hwang-cheng, which was employed in minutely organizing the supply service - a task of exceptional difficulty in these roadless mountains - reopened the campaign on the 24th of June, but only tentatively on account of the discouraging news from Port Arthur.
The captured passes were therefore fortified (as Feng-hwang-cheng had been) for passive resistance.
The first edict prohibiting opium-smoking was issued by the emperor Yung Cheng in 1729.
In 1870 there was a great outbreak concentrating in the massacres at Hankow and Tientsin; in 1891 at Hunan and in 1895 at Ku Cheng there: were other attacks which were only preliminary to the Boxer uprising of 1899-1900,, when 135 missionaries, besides 52 children.
The great trade routes are, first, that which, starting from Cheng-tu, the capital of the Chinese province of Szechuen, passes by way of Tachienlu or Dartsedo, Litang, Batang, Chiamdo, Larego, Lhasa, Gyantse, Shigatse, reaches the Nepalese Routes, &C. frontier at Nielam and goes thence to Katmandu.
The Russian first position extended in a semicircle from Anshantien (on the Liao-Yang-Hai-cheng railway) into the hills at Anping, and thence to the Taitse river above Liao-Yang; both sides had mixed detachments farther out on the flanks.